Photos of the Dead Sea scrolls.

The Dead Sea scrolls.

4Q162, pesher Isaiah.

4Q pesher Isaiah.A pesher is a kind of ancient Jewish commentary on the scriptures. This scroll fragment comes from such a commentary on the book of Isaiah. Notice the designation 4Q, which means that it was discovered in Qumran cave number 4.

4Q175, testimonia.

4Q 175 testimonia.Testimonia are strings of prooftexts on a particular theme. The theme of the testimonia in this document is the time of the end, including the coming of a prophet like Moses, and the oracle of Balaam son of Beor.

1QS, community rule.

Rule of the community.It is this community rule that gives us the clearest picture of the Jews who preserved the Dead Sea scrolls. This document is a manual governing the behavior and lifestyle of the monk-like inhabitants of Qumran.

The Leningrad codex, 474a.

Leningrad codex.The Leningrad codex is not one of the Dead Sea scrolls. The name of the preserving organization is the Ancient Biblical Manuscripts Center, not the Dead Sea Scrolls Center. Zuckerman will photograph any ancient manuscript that has a bearing on the biblical record. The Leningrad codex certainly qualifies. It is the oldest extant complete manuscript of the Hebrew scriptures.

The Dead Sea scrolls.