Twelve Caesars.

Julius Caesar and the first Roman emperors.


List.
Julius Caesar.
Caesar Augustus.
Tiberius Caesar.
Gaius (Caligula) Caesar.
Claudius Caesar.
Nero Caesar.
Galba Caesar.
Otho Caesar.
Vitellius Caesar.
Vespasian Caesar.
Titus Caesar.
Domitian Caesar.

Useful links.
Roman Emperors (chronological table).
Perseus (Lives by Suetonius available).

The Roman historian Suetonius wrote his biographies of the first twelve Roman dictators, the Twelve Caesars, sometime after 122. The titles of his twelve books are:

  1. Divus Iulius.
  2. Divus Augustus.
  3. Tiberius.
  4. Caligula.
  5. Divus Claudius.
  6. Nero.
  7. Galba.
  8. Otho.
  9. Vitellius.
  10. Divus Vespasianus.
  11. Divus Titus.
  12. Domitianus.

Divine Julius, divine Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, divine Claudius, Nero, Galba, Otho, Vitellius, divine Vespasian, divine Titus, Domitian.

Also of interest, Pontius Pilate.

Counting the emperors in Josephus.

Josephus, Antiquities 18.2.2 §32-33 (translation modified from William Whiston):

Διαδεχεται δε και τουτον Αννιος Ρουφος, εφ ου δη και τελευτα Καισαρ, δευτερος μεν Ρωμαιων αυτοκρατωρ γενομενος, επτα δε και πεντηκοντα της αρχης ετη, προς οις μηνες εξ ημεραι δυοιν πλειονες, τουτου δε αυτω του χρονου δεκατεσσαρα ετη συνηρξεν Αντωνιος, βιωσας ετη εβδομηκονταεπτα. διαδεχεται δε τω Καισαρι την ηγεμονιαν Τιβεριος Νερων γυναικος αυτου Ιουλιας υιος ων, τριτος ηδη ουτος αυτοκρατωρ, και πεμπτος υπ αυτου παρην Ιουδαιοις επαρχος διαδοχος Αννιω Ρουφω Ουαλεριος Γρατος.

After him came Annius Rufus, under whom died Caesar, the second emperor of the Romans, the duration of whose reign was fifty-seven years, besides six months and two days, of which time Antonius ruled together with him fourteen years; but the duration of his life was seventy-seven years, upon whose death Tiberius Nero, son of his wife Julia, succeeded. He was now the third emperor; and he sent Valerius Gratus to be procurator of Judea, and to succeed Annius Rufus.

Josephus, Antiquities 18.6.10 §224 (translation modified from William Whiston):

Τιβεριος δε τον Γαιον αποδειξας διαδοχον της ηγεμονιας ολιγας επιβιους ημερας εθανεν σχων αυτος την αρχην ημερας τρεις και πεντε μηνας προς ενιαυτοιν δυοιν και εικοσι. Γαιος δε ην αυτοκρατωρ τεταρτος.

So, when Tiberius had at this time appointed Gaius to be his successor, he outlived but a few days and then died, after holding the government twenty-two years five months and three days. Now Gaius was the fourth emperor.

The wings in 4 Ezra.

4 Ezra represents the Roman imperators as wings.

4 Ezra 11.12-32 (English translation based on that from www.pseudepigrapha.com; I am not certain who made the original translation):

  1. Et vidi, et ecce, a dextera parte surrexit una pinna et regnavit super omnem terram.
  2. et factum est cum regnaret, et venit ei finis et non apparuit, ita ut non appareret locus eius. et sequens exsurrexit et regnabat et ipsa multum tenuit tempus.
  3. et factum est cum regnaret, et veniebat finis eius, ut non appareret sicut prior.
  4. et ecce, vox emissa est illi dicens:
  5. Audi, tu quae toto tempore tenuisti terram, hoc adnuntii, antequam incipias non parere:
  6. nemo post te tenebit tempus tuum, sed nec dimidium eius.
  7. et levavit se tertia et tenuit principatum sicut priores, et non apparuit et ipsa.
  8. et sic contingebat omnibus alis singillatim principatum gerere et iterum nusquam conparere.
  9. et vidi, et ecce, in tempore sequentes pinnae erigebantur et ipsae a dextera parte. ut tenerent et ipsae principatum; et ex his erant quae tenebant, sed tamen statim non conparescebant.
  10. nam et aliquae ex eis erigebantur, sed non tenebant principatum.
  11. et vidi post haec, et ecce, non conparuerunt duodecim pinnae et duo pinnacula.
  12. et nihil superavit in corpore aquilae nisi tria capita quiescentia et sex pinnacula.
  13. et vidi, et ecce, de sex pinnaculis divisa sunt duo et manserunt sub capite quod est ad dexteram partem; nam quattuor manserunt in loco suo.
  14. et vidi, et ecce, hae subalares cogitabant se erigere et tenere principatus.
  15. et vidi, et ecce, una erecta est, sed statim non conparuit.
  16. et secunda, et haec velocius quam prior non conparuit.
  17. et vidi, et ecce, duae quae superaverunt apud semet ipsas cogitabant et ipsae regnare.
  18. et in eo cum cogitarent, et ecce, unum de quiescentium capitum, quod erat medium, evigilabat, hoc enim erat duorum capitum maior.
  19. et vidi, quomodo conplexa est duo capita secum,
  20. et ecce, conversum est caput cum his qui cum ea erant et comedit duas subalares quae cogitabant regnare.
  21. hoc autem caput percontinuit omnem terram et dominavit qui inhabitant in ea cum labore multo, et potentatum tenuit orbem terrarum super omnes alas quae fuerunt.
  1. And I looked, and behold, on the right side one wing arose, and it reigned over all the earth.
  2. And while it was reigning it came to its end and disappeared, so that its place was not seen. Then the next wing arose and reigned, and it continued to reign for a long time.
  3. And while it was reigning its end came also, so that it disappeared like the first.
  4. And behold, a voice sounded, saying to it:
  5. Hear me, you who have ruled the earth all this time; I announce this to you before you disappear.
  6. After you no one shall rule as long as you, nor even half as long.
  7. Then the third wing raised itself up and held the rule like the former ones, and it also disappeared.
  8. And so it went with all the wings; they wielded power one after another and then were never seen again.
  9. And I looked, and behold, in due course the wings that followed also rose up on the right side, in order to rule. There were some of them that ruled, yet disappeared suddenly;
  10. and others of them rose up, but did not hold the rule.
  11. And after this I looked, and behold, the twelve wings and the two little wings disappeared,
  12. and nothing remained on the body of the eagle except the three heads that were at rest and six little wings.
  13. And I looked, and behold, two little wings separated from the six and remained under the head that was on the right side; but four remained in their place.
  14. And I looked, and behold, these little wings planned to set themselves up and hold the rule.
  15. And I looked, and behold, one was set up, but suddenly disappeared;
  16. a second also, and this disappeared more quickly than the first.
  17. And I looked, and behold, the two that remained were planning between themselves to reign together,
  18. and while they were planning behold, one of the heads that were at rest, the one which was in the middle, awoke; for it was greater than the other two heads.
  19. And I saw how it allied the two heads with itself,
  20. and behold, the head turned with those that were with it, and it devoured the two little wings which were planning to reign.
  21. Moreover this head gained control of the whole earth, and with much oppression dominated its inhabitants; and it had greater power over the world than all the wings that had gone before.

4 Ezra 12.13-30 (English translation based on that from www.pseudepigrapha.com; I am not certain who made the original translation):

  1. Ecce, dies veniunt, et exsurget regnum super terram et erit timoratior omnium regnorum quae fuerunt ante eam.
  2. regnabunt autem in ea duodecim reges, unus post unum.
  3. nam secundus qui incipiet regnare, ipse tenebit amplius tempus prae duodecim.
  4. haec est interpretatio duodecim alarum quas vidisti.
  5. et quoniam audisti vocem quae locuta est non de capitibus eius exientem, sed de medio corpore eius,
  6. haec est interpretatio, quoniam post tempus regni illius nascentur contentiones non modicae, et periclitabitur ut cadat, et non cadet tunc, sed iterum constituetur in suum initium.
  7. et quoniam vidisti subalares octo coherentes alis eius,
  8. haec est interpretatio: Exsurgent enim in ipso octo reges, quorum erunt tempora levia et anni citati, et duo quidem ex ipsis perient
  9. adpropinquante tempore medio, quattuor autem servabuntur in tempore, cum incipiet adpropinquare tempus eius ut finiatur, duo vero in finem servabuntur.
  10. et quoniam vidisti tria capita quiescentia,
  11. haec est interpretatio: In novissimis eius suscitabit altissimus tria regna et renovabit in ea multa, et dominabunt terram
  12. et qui inhabitant in ea cum labore multo super omnes qui fuerunt ante hos. propter hoc ipsi vocati sunt capita aquilae.
  13. isti enim erunt qui recapitulabunt impietates eius et qui perficient novissima eius.
  14. et quoniam vidisti caput maius non apparescentem, quoniam unus ex eis super lectum suum morietur, et tamen cum tormentis.
  15. nam duo qui perseveraverunt, gladius eos comedet.
  16. unius enim gladius comedet qui cum eo, sed tamen et hic gladio in novissimis cadet.
  17. et quoniam vidisti duas subalares treicientes super caput quod est a dextera parte,
  18. haec est interpretatio: Hii sunt quos conservavit altissimus in finem suam, hoc erat regnum exile et turbationis plenum.
  1. Behold, the days are coming when a kingdom shall arise on earth, and it shall be more terrifying than all the kingdoms that have been before it.
  2. And twelve kings shall reign in it, one after another.
  3. But the second that is to reign shall hold sway for a longer time than any other of the twelve.
  4. This is the interpretation of the twelve wings which you saw.
  5. As for your hearing a voice that spoke, coming not from the heads of the eagle but from the midst of his body, this is the interpretation:
  6. In the midst of the time of that kingdom great struggles shall arise, and it shall be in danger of falling; nevertheless it shall not fall then, but shall regain its former power.
  7. As for your seeing eight little wings clinging to his wings, this is the interpretation:
  8. Eight kings shall arise in it, whose times shall be short and their years swift,
  9. and two of them shall perish when the middle of its time draws near, and four shall be kept for the time when its end approaches; but two shall be kept until the end.
  10. As for your seeing three heads at rest, this is the interpretation:
  11. In its last days the most high will raise up three kings, and they shall renew many things in it, and shall rule the earth
  12. and its inhabitants more oppressively than all who were before them; therefore they are called the heads of the eagle.
  13. For it is they who shall sum up his wickedness and perform his last actions.
  14. As for your seeing that the large head disappeared, one of the kings shall die in his bed, but in agonies.
  15. But, as for the two who remained, the sword shall devour them.
  16. For the sword of one shall devour him who was with him; but he also shall fall by the sword in the last days.
  17. As for your seeing two little wings passing over to the head which was on the right side,
  18. this is the interpretation: It is these whom the most high has kept for the end of the eagle; this was the reign which was brief and full of tumult, as you have seen.