Julius Caesar and the first Roman emperors.
Gaius (Caligula) Caesar.
Roman Emperors (chronological table).
by Suetonius available).
The Roman historian Suetonius wrote his biographies of the first
twelve Roman dictators, the Twelve
Caesars, sometime after 122. The titles of his twelve books
- Divus Iulius.
- Divus Augustus.
- Divus Claudius.
- Divus Vespasianus.
- Divus Titus.
Divine Julius, divine Augustus,
Tiberius, Caligula, divine Claudius, Nero, Galba, Otho, Vitellius,
divine Vespasian, divine Titus, Domitian.
Also of interest, Pontius Pilate.
Counting the emperors in Josephus.
18.2.2 §32-33 (translation modified from William Whiston):
After him came Annius Rufus, under whom
died Caesar, the second emperor of the Romans, the duration of
whose reign was fifty-seven years, besides six months and two days,
of which time Antonius ruled together with him fourteen years; but
the duration of his life was seventy-seven years, upon whose death
Tiberius Nero, son of his wife Julia, succeeded. He was now the
third emperor; and he sent Valerius Gratus to be procurator of Judea,
and to succeed Annius Rufus.
18.6.10 §224 (translation modified from William Whiston):
So, when Tiberius had at this time appointed
Gaius to be his successor, he outlived but a few days and then died,
after holding the government twenty-two years five months and three
days. Now Gaius was the fourth emperor.
The wings in 4 Ezra.
4 Ezra represents the Roman
imperators as wings.
4 Ezra 11.12-32 (English translation based on that from
www.pseudepigrapha.com; I am not
certain who made the original translation):
- Et vidi, et ecce, a dextera parte surrexit una
pinna et regnavit super omnem terram.
- et factum est cum regnaret, et venit ei finis
et non apparuit, ita ut non appareret locus eius. et sequens
exsurrexit et regnabat et ipsa multum tenuit tempus.
- et factum est cum regnaret, et veniebat finis
eius, ut non appareret sicut prior.
- et ecce, vox emissa est illi dicens:
- Audi, tu quae toto tempore tenuisti terram,
hoc adnuntii, antequam incipias non parere:
- nemo post te tenebit tempus tuum, sed nec
- et levavit se tertia et tenuit principatum
sicut priores, et non apparuit et ipsa.
- et sic contingebat omnibus alis singillatim
principatum gerere et iterum nusquam conparere.
- et vidi, et ecce, in tempore sequentes pinnae
erigebantur et ipsae a dextera parte. ut tenerent et ipsae
principatum; et ex his erant quae tenebant, sed tamen statim non
- nam et aliquae ex eis erigebantur, sed non
- et vidi post haec, et ecce, non conparuerunt
duodecim pinnae et duo pinnacula.
- et nihil superavit in corpore aquilae nisi
tria capita quiescentia et sex pinnacula.
- et vidi, et ecce, de sex pinnaculis divisa
sunt duo et manserunt sub capite quod est ad dexteram partem;
nam quattuor manserunt in loco suo.
- et vidi, et ecce, hae subalares cogitabant
se erigere et tenere principatus.
- et vidi, et ecce, una erecta est, sed statim
- et secunda, et haec velocius quam prior non
- et vidi, et ecce, duae quae superaverunt apud
semet ipsas cogitabant et ipsae regnare.
- et in eo cum cogitarent, et ecce, unum de
quiescentium capitum, quod erat medium, evigilabat, hoc enim
erat duorum capitum maior.
- et vidi, quomodo conplexa est duo capita
- et ecce, conversum est caput cum his qui cum
ea erant et comedit duas subalares quae cogitabant regnare.
- hoc autem caput percontinuit omnem terram
et dominavit qui inhabitant in ea cum labore multo, et potentatum
tenuit orbem terrarum super omnes alas quae fuerunt.
- And I looked, and behold, on the right side
one wing arose, and it reigned over all the earth.
- And while it was reigning it came to its end
and disappeared, so that its place was not seen. Then the next
wing arose and reigned, and it continued to reign for a long time.
- And while it was reigning its end came also,
so that it disappeared like the first.
- And behold, a voice sounded, saying to it:
- Hear me, you who have ruled the earth all
this time; I announce this to you before you disappear.
- After you no one shall rule as long as you,
nor even half as long.
- Then the third wing raised itself up and
held the rule like the former ones, and it also disappeared.
- And so it went with all the wings; they
wielded power one after another and then were never seen again.
- And I looked, and behold, in due course the
wings that followed also rose up on the right side, in order to
rule. There were some of them that ruled, yet disappeared suddenly;
- and others of them rose up, but did not hold
- And after this I looked, and behold, the
twelve wings and the two little wings disappeared,
- and nothing remained on the body of the eagle
except the three heads that were at rest and six little wings.
- And I looked, and behold, two little wings
separated from the six and remained under the head that was on the
right side; but four remained in their place.
- And I looked, and behold, these little wings
planned to set themselves up and hold the rule.
- And I looked, and behold, one was set up, but
- a second also, and this disappeared more
quickly than the first.
- And I looked, and behold, the two that
remained were planning between themselves to reign together,
- and while they were planning behold, one of
the heads that were at rest, the one which was in the middle,
awoke; for it was greater than the other two heads.
- And I saw how it allied the two heads with
- and behold, the head turned with those that
were with it, and it devoured the two little wings which were
planning to reign.
- Moreover this head gained control of the
whole earth, and with much oppression dominated its inhabitants;
and it had greater power over the world than all the wings that
had gone before.
4 Ezra 12.13-30 (English translation based on that from
www.pseudepigrapha.com; I am not
certain who made the original translation):
- Ecce, dies veniunt, et exsurget regnum super
terram et erit timoratior omnium regnorum quae fuerunt ante eam.
- regnabunt autem in ea duodecim reges, unus
- nam secundus qui incipiet regnare, ipse
tenebit amplius tempus prae duodecim.
- haec est interpretatio duodecim alarum quas
- et quoniam audisti vocem quae locuta est
non de capitibus eius exientem, sed de medio corpore eius,
- haec est interpretatio, quoniam post
tempus regni illius nascentur contentiones non modicae, et
periclitabitur ut cadat, et non cadet tunc, sed iterum
constituetur in suum initium.
- et quoniam vidisti subalares octo coherentes
- haec est interpretatio: Exsurgent enim in ipso
octo reges, quorum erunt tempora levia et anni citati, et duo
quidem ex ipsis perient
- adpropinquante tempore medio, quattuor
autem servabuntur in tempore, cum incipiet adpropinquare tempus
eius ut finiatur, duo vero in finem servabuntur.
- et quoniam vidisti tria capita quiescentia,
- haec est interpretatio: In novissimis eius
suscitabit altissimus tria regna et renovabit in ea multa,
et dominabunt terram
- et qui inhabitant in ea cum labore multo super
omnes qui fuerunt ante hos. propter hoc ipsi vocati sunt capita
- isti enim erunt qui recapitulabunt impietates
eius et qui perficient novissima eius.
- et quoniam vidisti caput maius non
apparescentem, quoniam unus ex eis super lectum suum morietur,
et tamen cum tormentis.
- nam duo qui perseveraverunt, gladius eos
- unius enim gladius comedet qui cum eo,
sed tamen et hic gladio in novissimis cadet.
- et quoniam vidisti duas subalares treicientes
super caput quod est a dextera parte,
- haec est interpretatio: Hii sunt quos
conservavit altissimus in finem suam, hoc erat regnum exile et
- Behold, the days are coming when a kingdom
shall arise on earth, and it shall be more terrifying than all
the kingdoms that have been before it.
- And twelve kings shall reign in it,
one after another.
- But the second that is to reign shall
hold sway for a longer time than any other of the twelve.
- This is the interpretation of the twelve
wings which you saw.
- As for your hearing a voice that spoke,
coming not from the heads of the eagle but from the midst of his
body, this is the interpretation:
- In the midst of the time of that kingdom
great struggles shall arise, and it shall be in danger of falling;
nevertheless it shall not fall then, but shall regain its
- As for your seeing eight little wings
clinging to his wings, this is the interpretation:
- Eight kings shall arise in it, whose times
shall be short and their years swift,
- and two of them shall perish when the
middle of its time draws near, and four shall be kept for the
time when its end approaches; but two shall be kept until
- As for your seeing three heads at rest,
this is the interpretation:
- In its last days the most high will raise up
three kings, and they shall renew many things in it, and shall
rule the earth
- and its inhabitants more oppressively
than all who were before them; therefore they are called the
heads of the eagle.
- For it is they who shall sum up his
wickedness and perform his last actions.
- As for your seeing that the large head
disappeared, one of the kings shall die in his bed,
but in agonies.
- But, as for the two who remained, the sword
shall devour them.
- For the sword of one shall devour him
who was with him; but he also shall fall by the sword in the
- As for your seeing two little wings passing
over to the head which was on the right side,
- this is the interpretation: It is these
whom the most high has kept for the end of the eagle;
this was the reign which was brief and full of tumult,
as you have seen.