The books of Samuel.
Counted among the prophets.
None on site.
CCEL: 1 Samuel and
2 Samuel (Hebrew only).
Swete LXX (Greek only).
Gateway (English only).
1 Samuel (Hebrew and English).
2 Samuel (Hebrew and English).
(Latin Vulgate only).
Zhubert (Greek and English).
(Latin Vulgate only).
Kata Pi BHS:
1 Samuel (Hebrew and English).
Kata Pi LXX:
2 Samuel (Hebrew and English).
1 Kingdoms (Greek and English).
Kata Pi LXX: Ode (prayer of Hannah).
2 Kingdoms (Greek and English).
1 Samuel (polyglot).
Sacred Texts: Ode (prayer of Hannah).
2 Samuel (polyglot).
1 and 2 Samuel at the OT Gateway.
1 and 2 Samuel in the Jewish Encyclopedia.
EJW (Peter Kirby).
1 and 2 Samuel at Kata Pi (Oesterly and Robinson).
1 Samuel and
2 Samuel from the Plymouth Brethren.
Introduction to 1 Samuel (David Malick).
Outline of 1 Samuel (David Malick).
Introduction to 2 Samuel (David Malick).
Outline of 2 Samuel (David Malick).
A Study of 1 Samuel (Bob Deffinbaugh).
A Study of 2 Samuel (Bob Deffinbaugh).
Society and the Promise to David
(William M. Schniedewind).
The books of Samuel are counted as historical books in our English
Bibles, but in the Jewish scriptures
they are ranked among the former prophets.
The books were originally written in Hebrew, but the ancient Greek
translation known as the Septuagint
(abbreviated LXX) is also a very important witness to the text. These
books in the LXX bear the titles of 1 and 2 Kingdoms (and 1 and 2 Kings
bear the titles of 3 and 4 Kingdoms).
Peter Kirby (Early Jewish Writings).
Peter Kirby surveys scholars writing on the book of 1 Samuel:
Robert L. Cohn writes: "Although the division of Samuel into two books
may seem artificial, 1 Samuel does possess its own literary logic, which begins
with the birth of Samuel and ends with the death of Saul. In fact, the book
falls clearly into two parts centering upon these two figures: chaps. 1-12 chart
Samuel's career from his birth to his farewell address; and chaps. 13-31 start
with the notice of Saul's reign and conclude with the account of his death.
But this division is not rigid: Saul is introduced as early as chap. 9 and Samuel
continues to function after chap. 12. Yet these appearances are subordinated
to the stories of Samuel and Saul, respectively. Similarly, the second account
of Saul's death in 2 Samuel 1 properly forms part not of Saul's story, but of
David's. Unlike the first account of Saul's death in 1 Samuel 31, the second
account is presented not as an objective narration but as a post factum, tendentious
report by a messenger to David. Only in 2 Samuel 1, after Saul's death, does
David function independentlyin 1 Samuel he is regarded always as the servant
of Saul and his story is always subordinated to Saul's." (Harper's Bible
Commentary, p. 268)
Samuel Sandmel writes: "Accordingly, viewpoints in Samuel-Kings clash
and contradict each other. The antimonarchy chapters seem oblivious of the theme
recurrent in Judges that a king was an urgent necessity. David and Solomon are
both idealized and also severely criticized. The great Solomon is interpreted
as the culprit responsible for the division of the monarchy. The editors seem
to find it here recurrently necessary to explain why it was that the privilege
of building the Temple was withheld from David and given to Solomon. The abundance
of the material on David, with long sections reproduced from ancient sources
without Deuteronomic comments, tends to obscure the true character of Samuel-Kings.
If, however, one were to skip from the account (the first of two) of David's
anointing, in I Samuel 16, to I Samuel 31, the death of saul; from there to
II Samuel 5, David's election as king by the tribes, and the summary of his
reign, to the account of his death in II Samuel 2, then the restored perspective
will bear out that Samuel-Kings is an interpretation of kingship and not a history
of it." (The Hebrew Scriptures, pp. 442-443)
James King West writes: "Efforts have been made to reduce the older sources
in Samuel to two: (1) an early promonarchical source from the period of the
United Monarchy, which is somewhat more favorably disposed toward Saul; and
(2) a late antimonarchical source from the period of the later Monarchy (c.
750-650 B.C.), which centers most of its attention on Samuel. That we have in
Samuel a compilation of promonarchical and antimonarchical traditions is not
to be doubted, but that these two criteria can be made the basis for a simple
duality of sources running the length of the work is far from certain. To regard
the sources as continuations of the J and E strands of the Pentateuch is even
less defensible. It is more likely that the compiler utilized a number of independent
sources, of whichin addition to the (1) promonarchical and (2) antimonarchical
traditions, we can distinguish (3) a Samuel infancy narrative (I Sam. 1-3),
(4) a history of the ark (I Sam. 4-6; II Sam. 6), and (5) the so-called 'Court
History of David' (II Sam. 9-20 and I Kg. 1-2). The Deuteronomist's role in
the production of the work is not as easily as in the other books of the Former
Prophets. His unmistakable style and theology are evident, however, in passages
such as I Samuel 8 and 12, where he appears to have reworked the older antimonarchical
traditions, giving to them a peculiarly Dueteronomic point of view." (Introduction
to the Old Testament, p. 185)
Jay G. Williams writes: "Chapter 9 now introduces Saul, a young and handsome
Benjamite, who is looking for his father's lost asses. Thinking Samuel to be
a clairvoyant, he goes to seek his aid. Instead of just learning about his father's
animals, however, he is anointed king over all Israel. The story is amusing
and sets the stage for the tragi-comic reign of King Saul; yet one must also
see that there were some good reasons for the selection of Saul as king. In
the first place, he was from Benjamin, a small and relatively unimportant tribe.
Hence, his selection did not cause the tribal antagonisms which might have been
produced by the choice of someone from Judah or Ephraim. Second, he was tall
and handsome and looked, at least, like a leader. Third, he had no great yen
for power. He came looking for some donkeys, not for the kingship, and that
fact in itself was a point in his favor." (Understanding the Old Testament,
John H. Walton writes: "It is difficult to dissect Saul's offense of offering
the sacrifice for the consecration of the soldiers prior to battle (chap. 13).
Saul was in an awkward position. Samuel had not come to offer the sacrifice
in preparation for battle, and Saul dared not go into battle without ityet
the opportunity for attack was passing quickly and the army was beginning to
desert. What would be the most appropriate course of action? Saul acted in his
best judgment and reluctantly offered the sacrifice. In doing so, he followed
a Canaanite model of kingship, in which the king had certain priestly prerogatives.
When Samuel arrived and learned what Saul had done, hew as absolutely livid.
This is an example of Saul's inability to make wise decisions. The wisdom that
was the natrual endowment of a true king had escaped Saul; he neither possessed
it nor requested it. One could not succeed as king on good intentions."
(A Survey of the Old Testament, p. 192)
J. Alberto Soggin writes: "One of the fundamental theological problems
which appears right through the work is that of the election and rejection of
particular people. Quite apart from any expectation of personal merit, and often
choosing men whose morals are at least doubtful (David is the most impressive
example of this), God directs human history by making use of individuals whom
he elects and whom he endows with particular gifts in view of their vocation.
To the modern reader Saul might hardly seem to be a 'sinner', and we might doubt
whether his 'sin' made much impression on the reader or hearer of that time.
Nor would it interest the reader of some centuries later that at the heart of
the conflict between Saul and Samuel there were questions like that of the prerogatives
of the monarch in the cult: only decades after Saul, David and Solomon intervened
directly in the affairs of the cult, the first bringing the ark to Jerusalem
with a solemn procession in which the king officiated and the second building
a temple, sacrificing, blessing the people and pronouncing prayers of intercession,
with hardly anyone making any objection. Moreover, the religious reforms launched
by Hezekiah and then especially by Josiah were praised (with a few reservations)
by the Deuteronomistic historian and were not attacked by the prophets, who
were often very polemical in their encounters with the monarchy. More than dwelling
on facts, then, the redactors were concerned to make an intensely theological
presentation of two paradigmatic cases. In the case of Saul we have a man who
was elected by God for a specific task but could not surrender his office once
that task had been accomplished and could not see that others, more gifted than
himself, were ready to succeed him. From this spiritual insensitivity there
arose an inner conflict which led the protagonist to pathological forms of mistrust,
hypochondria and persecution mania which would have proved suicidal for one
who had been (and remained to the end) a prince without fault or fear had not
his glorious death on the battlefield (to put it in pious terms) liberated him.
In the case of David the situation is substantially different: here we have
a most able and somewhat unscrupulous politician (the texts faithfully admit
these qualities), a superb leader endowed with a special capacity for dealing
with those like himself: so able that even Jonathan, the prince and heir, remains
fascinated, although it becomes obvious that David has conspired against his
interests. But, again following this description, David is never deaf to the
word of God and thus appears to the redactor as a person who is capable of overcoming
the many negative elements in his personality. These evaluations, then, are
extremely subjective; they are intended to provide examples, and certainly go
far beyond any historical investigation. The starting point of such considerations
is, of course, the fact that Saul and his house lost the throne while David
and his gained it. This fact 'should' have matched some divine intention (and
here the interpretation of the facts leaves the sphere of secular history to
enter the purely theological sphere) which the explanation given seeks to discover.
And this is the weakness of such an approach on the level of history-writing.
But it cannot be denied that the authors, whether deliberately or not we do
not know, succeeded in presenting at least in the person of Saul a figure who
anticipates the protagonists of Greek tragedy; this explains why for centuries,
down to a few decades ago (see André Gide's play), the unhappy first
king of Israel has beeen the protagonist of tragedies. He remains the hero,
the loyal warrior incapable of taking part in a political game which is both
refined and brutal, an art in which David, by contrast, was master. And the
fact that David's work was crowned with success while that of Saul ended gloriously,
but tragically, on the heights of Gilboa, does not prevent us from considering
Saul to be the more sympathetic and the more upright of the two, even if in
the intention of the redactors of the texts this is evidently a wrong view."
(Introduction to the Old Testament, pp. 194-196)
Peter Kirby also surveys scholars writing on the book of 2 Samuel:
James C. Turro writes: "It is not possible to date with precision the
origin of 1-2 Sm. In part, these books undoubtedly contain very old materials,
some dating from the first years of the monarchy in Israel. The Narrative of
Succession (2 Sm 9-20) is an example of such early documentation. It was probably
fixed in written form soon after the events that it narrates took place. The
entire work was probably given its definitive shapeallowance amde for
some later additions and retouchingshortly before, or during, the Exile.
This final restyling was accomplished under D influence, reflected especially
in I Sm 2:27-36 and 2 Sm 7." (The Jerome Biblical Commentary, vol.
1, p. 163)
David M. Gunn writes: "Most commonly accepted of the ideas about sources
is the view that chaps. 9-20 together with 1 Kings 1-2 was originally a separate
document. This 'story of King David' is often referred to as the 'court history'
or 'succession narrative,' since some have seen the struggle between David's
son to succeed him on the throne as its primary theme. A case has been made
for including most of chaps. 2-4 (the war between David and Saul's son Ishbosheth)
with this material and possibly part of chaps. 6 (David and Michal) and 7 (the
promise of a Davidic dynasty). But where this postulated document originally
began is uncertain." (Harper's Bible Commentary, p. 287)
J. Alberto Soggin writes: "The 'succession narrative', II Sam. 9-20 (perhaps
preceded by 21.1-14 and ch. 24, cf. the question in 9.1, which is probably a
reference to the episode described in 21.1ff., and the beginning of 24.1ff.,
the form of which is similar to that of 21.1ff.) and I Kings 1-2, is a historiographical
work of remarkable importance. After the classic study by L. Rost, the narrative
has often been considered to be one of the earliest history writings in the
world, if not the earliest. The author is a supreme storyteller and sees history
as a series of inter-connected events linked by a chain of cause and effect,
and at the same time dominated by the concept of divine recompense. In this
sense, then, we have a precursor of Dtr. The narrative begins with a few factual
details: David sought to possess the wife of one of his generals, Uriah the
Hittite, and did not hesitate to have the latter killed to remove the impediment
to his marriage. Now comes retribution: as David has destroyed the family of
Uriah, so his own family is to be destroyed by the divine judgment (cf. the
speech by the prophet Nathan in II Sam. 12.7-12). The criterion which unifies
this historiography is thus the hand of God, who is the real protagonist in
the history: he guides it even in its less edifying aspects (cf. also II Sam.
11.27 and 17.14). For the rest, however, we have a secular history and a principle
of approach which is fundamental for any scientific history. On the other hand,
it has recently been noted that the narrative is rich in elements which by their
nature cannot be subjected to historical investigation: not only the concept
of divine reward and punishment, an anticipation of Dtr and a feature common
to all Near Eastern and Israelite wisdom, which believes in a cosmic order of
which Yahweh is the guarantor in Israel, but also other aspects cannot be verified
in any way. For example, in v. 9b it is expressly said that there are no witnesses
to the conversation between Ammon and his half-sister Tamar (II Sam. 13.10ff.)
in the bedroom where the former is pretending to be ill, but the conversation
is reported in its entirety. This is a typical example of what we shall be discussing.
Thus although the narrative refers to historical events, it is not properly
historical, but rather a historical novel which attempts to penetrate into the
makeup of the people it describes and which bases its approach on a fundamental
theme of wisdom: that no one can escape the laws of the world order which have
been laid down by Yahweh. Furthermore, it is a story with an obvious message:
that Solomon is the legitimate successor to David and willed by Yahweh.
Notwithstanding these reservations, however, it is difficult to deny that the
account bears witness to the way in which Israel struggled to gain an understanding
of history as a world-wide phenomenon, an interest which we do not find among
any other people at this time (with the brief exception of the Hittites)."
(Introduction to the Old Testament, pp. 192-193)
Jay G. Williams writes: "The David of Samuel, unlike the David of Chronicles,
is hardly a man who spends most of his time worrying about cultic affairs. He
is a vigorous general, a virile and sometimes lustful hero, and a keen politician.
At the same time, the David of Samuel is a fervently pious man who does more
than simply manipulate religion for the benefit of the state. His dancing before
the ark in an 'uncovered' state is just one example of his enthusiasm for Yahweh
and his cult." (Understanding the Old Testament, pp. 173-174)
Samuel Sandmel writes: "We read in II Samuel 21:19 that the slayer of
Goliath was a certain Elkanan. Legend transferred the achievement to David;
gowing legend took two formsthe one of making the Goliath incident the
occasion for the meeting of Saul and David; the other, since they have presumably
met, ascribes it to a development in David's life at the court." (The
Hebrew Scriptures, p. 447)
James King West writes: "David's reign not only established the broad
patterns for Israel's four centuries of monarchical rule, but produced as well
significant and lasting concepts of the divinely appointed role of the king,
the nation, and the city of Jerusalem in the future destiny of world history.
In southern tradition, most especially, David took a place alongside Abraham
and Moses as the recipient of a covenant with Yahweh which assured for his descendants
an everlasting kingdom. This comes to expression in II Samuel 7, in Nathan's
promise to the king: 'And your house and your kingdom shall be made sure forever
before me; your throne will be established forever.' [II Sam. 7:16] The same
theme recurs in the poem of II Samuel 23:1-7 and is reflected in a great many
references and allusions in later Old Testament passages, particularly in the
royal Psalms. A royal theology developed which was sufficiently bold to refer
to the king as God's (adopted) 'son' and 'annointed' (mashiah), and,
alongside it, a tradition of Zion (Jerusalem) as God's 'holy hill' and 'resting
place forever.' Long after the collapse of the monarchy, the hope continued
to live on in the messianic expectation of a future deliverer prince who would
reign over God's people from Zion." (Introduction to the Old Testament,