Peter the apostle.
One of the twelve.
Peter is also known as Cephas in the pages of the New Testament. The name Peter comes from the Greek word for rock, and the name Cephas comes from the Aramaic word for rock.
Peter is called along with his brother Andrew in Matthew 4.18 = Mark 1.16 and John 1.40-42, and witnesses a miraculous catch of fish in Luke 5.3-11, after which events he surfaces frequently in the gospel narratives. He makes the first quartet in every canonical list of the disciples in Matthew 10.2 = Mark 3.16 = Luke 6.14 and Acts 1.13. He witnesses the healing of his own mother-in-law in Matthew 8.14 = Mark 1.29 = Luke 4.38. He briefly walks on the water before sinking in Matthew 14.28-32 He, along with James and John, are the only disciples to witness the raising of the daughter of Jairus in Mark 5.37 = Luke 8.51 (refer also to Matthew 9.25), the transfiguration in Matthew 17.1, 4 = Mark 9.2, 5 = Luke 9.28, 32-33, and the Gethsemane agony in Matthew 26.37, 40 = Mark 14.33, 37 (refer also to Luke 22.39). He confesses Jesus as Christ in Matthew 16.16 = Mark 8.29 = Luke 9.20, and Jesus praises him for it in Matthew 16.17-19, before Peter rebukes Jesus and thus earns a rebuke of his own in Matthew 16.22-23 = Mark 8.32-33. He is one of four disciples to hear the Olivet discourse in Mark 13.3. Peter and John are the ones who Jesus sends to prepare the Passover in Luke 22.8. He first refuses then demands a dominical footwashing in John 13.6-9. He promises not to desert Jesus, who predicts he will indeed thrice deny him, in Matthew 26.33-35 = Mark 14.29-31 = Luke 22.31-34. Peter cuts off an ear when Jesus is arrested in John 18.10-11. He follows Jesus at a distance after his arrest in Matthew 26.58 = Mark 14.54 = Luke 22.54 and John 18.15-16. As predicted, Peter thrice denies Jesus in Matthew 26.69-75 = Mark 14.66-72 = Luke 22.55-62 and John 18.17-18, 25-27. Peter is promised a personal resurrection appearance in Mark 16.7 and runs to the empty tomb in Luke 24.12 and John 20.2-10 before being granted that appearance as of Luke 24.34. Peter is also mentioned in the shorter ending of Mark. He is one of the disciples on the lake of Tiberias when Jesus appears for the third time in John 21.2-11. Jesus takes him aside in John 21.15-22 to thrice restore him after his three denials. Other gospel references are Matthew 15.15; 17.24-25; 18.21; Matthew 19.27 = Mark 10.28 = Luke 18.28; Mark 11.21; Luke 8.45; 12.41; John 1.44; 6.8, 68; 13.24, 36-37.
In Acts 1.15 it is Peter who stands up to speak about replacing Judas, and in Acts 2.14 it is he who gives the sermon at Pentecost. In Acts 2.37-38 he tells how to receive the holy spirit. Peter and John perform a healing and are arrested for it in Acts 3.1-4.22. Peter presides over the strange case of Ananias and Sapphira in Acts 5.1-11. His very shadow heals whom it touches in Acts 5.15. Peter judges that he and the apostles should obey God rather than men in Acts 5.29. Peter and John go as emissaries to Samaria in Acts 8.14-15. Peter curses Simon Magus in Acts 8.20-23 and heals Aeneas in Acts 9.32-34 and Dorcas in Acts 9.38-43. In Acts 10.1-48 he welcomes Cornelius the Roman centurion to the faith, for which action with a gentile he has to explain himself in Acts 11.1-17. Peter is arrested and escapes from prison with angelic assistance in Acts 12.1-19. He participates in the Jerusalem conference in Acts 15.7.
Paul mentions Peter by that name in Galatians 2.7-8, and Cephas in 1 Corinthians 1.12; 3.22; 9.5; 15.5; Galatians 1.18; 2.9, 11-14.
Jerome, On Famous Men 1:
Peter and Cephas.
The Epistula Apostolorum (middle of century II) apparently distinguishes between Peter and Cephas. It reads in section 2:
We, [that is,] John, Thomas, Peter, Andrew, James, Philip, Batholomew, Matthew, Nathanael, Judas Zelotes, and Cephas, write to the churches of the east and the west, of the north and the south, declaring and imparting to you that which concerns our Lord Jesus Christ.
This part of this text is extant only in Ethiopic, I believe.
Eusebius writes as follows of Clement of Alexandria in History of the Church 1.12.2:
James M. Scott addresses the issue in his article, A Question of Identity in the Journal of Biblical Studies, available online.