The book of Nahum.
Counted among the prophets.
None on site.
CCEL: Nahum (Hebrew only).
Swete LXX (Greek only).
Gateway (English only).
HTML Bible: Nahum (Hebrew and English).
HTML Bible: Nahum
(Latin Vulgate only).
Zhubert (Greek and English).
Kata Pi BHS: Nahum (Hebrew and English).
Kata Pi LXX: Nahum (Greek and English).
Sacred Texts: Nahum (polyglot).
Nahum at the OT Gateway.
Nahum in the Jewish Encyclopedia.
EJW (Peter Kirby).
Nahum at Kata Pi (Oesterly and Robinson).
Nahum from the Plymouth Brethren.
Introduction to Nahum (David Malick).
Outline of Nahum (David Malick).
The book of Nahum ranks among the
latter prophets in the Jewish scriptures.
The book was originally written in Hebrew, but the ancient Greek
translation known as the Septuagint
(abbreviated LXX) is also a very important witness to the text.
Peter Kirby (Early Jewish Writings).
Peter Kirby surveys scholars writing on the book of Nahum:
Ralph L. Smith writes: "One may divide the book into three almost equal
parts. Chap. 1 is about the nature of God. Because Yahweh is a jealous God he
will judge the enemies of his people and he will give refuge to those who trust
in him because he is good (v 7). Chap. 2 is a vivid description of the battle
for Nineveh along with a taunt song against Nineveh. Chap. 3 is an oracle on
the fate of Nineveh. A more detailed outline of the book will show that 1:9-2:2
contains alternating judgment oracles against Assyria and salvation oracles
for Judah based on the contrast in the psalm between the enemy and those who
seek Yahweh's protection. The psalm is not a typical hymn of praise because
it lacks the imperatives which are usual in the call to thanksgiving in Israel.
The thematic relation of the judgment oracle against Assyria to the psalm is
marked in 1:8-9 by the idea of 'making an end'. The salvation oracle promises
deliverance for Judah in that day. Then the King of Assyria is told of his ultimate
annihilation. The oracles of judgment and salvation are expansions of the themes
introduced in the hymn fragment. In vivid contrapuntal manner the oracles introduce
the reader, filled with the knowledge of a zealous God, to the descriptive passages
about Nineveh and Thebes, the final destruction of the Assyrian king, and the
joy of those who must no longer endure his tyrrany." (Micah-Malachi,
J. Alberto Soggin writes: "The text is particularly fine in chs. 2-3,
but falls off in quality and, as we have seen, is interrupted in ch. 1, where
the style is also very varied. This is a disconcerting phenomenon in such a
short work, and various explanations of it have been given, but none of them
commands general approval. Until recently, many scholars challenged the authenticity
of the acrostic and in some cases even went as far as dating it in the second
century BC (e.g. R. H. Pfieffer in his Introduction). It is possible
that the first part was composed before the fall of Nineveh and the second after
it. The Scandinavian school has again tried to see the book in terms of an epic
and mythical struggle between Yahweh and Tammuz (of course ending in the victory
of the former) represented in the cult and constructed on the basis of formulae
taken from the liturgy of the two deities. However, an interpretation of this
kind, while not excluded by the historical background mentioned above, is not
justified given the present state of the sources." (Introduction to
the Old Testament, p. 276)
Richard T. A. Murphy writes: "Nahum (lit., 'Yahweh consoles') lived in
the turbulent 7th cent. BC, an era of violence. He prophesied between the spectacular
fall of Thebes (663; cf. 3:6) and that of Nineveh (612), probably ca.
612. The exultant hopes raised by the fall of proud Nineveh on the Tigris were
short lived, for Josaih was soon to be cut down at Megiddo (609), Nebuchadnezzar
was to become lord of the west at Carchemish (605), soon after which he would
invest and take Jerusalem (587)." (The Jerome Biblical Commentary,
vol. 1, p. 293)
Jay G. Williams writes: "The little book of Nahum is undated, but it clearly
comes from about 612 B.C., for it speaks of the fall of Nineveh, the capital
of Assyria, which took place at that time. Nahum is said to come from Elkosh,
but that town has never been certainly located. Some identify it with Capernaum
(which means 'the village of Nahum'), while others place it variously in the
territory of Simeon, in Galilee at el-Kauzeh, or even in Assyria itself. Since
Nahum itself gives some indications that the author lived in Judah (1:15), a
southern location is probably most likely." (Understanding the Old Testament,
Duane L. Christensen writes: "No book in the Bible has been maligned as
much as this one. It is frequently described as a vengeful, nationalistic expression
of glee over the destruction of a bitter enemy that some would want to remove
from the canon of sacred Scripture altogether. Nahum has been described as ethically
and theologically deficient, even the work of a false prophet. As a result,
the book has been virtually ignored in both the modern church and synagogue.
Much of this fate, however, is not deserved. Nahum is primarily a book about
God's justice, not about human vengeance, hatred, and military conquest. It
is best read as a complement to the book of Jonah. Whereas Nahum focuses on
the 'dark side' of God, Jonah portrays God's mercy and compassion toward the
same wicked city. Both aspects are essential for an understanding of the divine
nature. It should be noted that, though the positive side of God is muted in
Nahum, it is by no means absent (see 1:3, 7)." (Harper's Bible Commentary,