The book of Micah.
Counted among the prophets.
None on site.
CCEL: Micah (Hebrew only).
Swete LXX (Greek only).
Gateway (English only).
HTML Bible: Micah (Hebrew and English).
HTML Bible: Amos
(Latin Vulgate only).
Zhubert (Greek and English).
Kata Pi BHS: Micah (Hebrew and English).
Kata Pi LXX: Micah (Greek and English).
Sacred Texts: Micah (polyglot).
Micah at the OT Gateway.
Micah in the Jewish Encyclopedia.
EJW (Peter Kirby).
Micah at Kata Pi (Oesterly and Robinson).
Micah from the Plymouth Brethren.
Introduction to Micah (David Malick).
Outline of Micah (David Malick).
Isaiah and Micah (Gerald Larue).
The book of Micah ranks among the
latter prophets in the Jewish scriptures.
The book was originally written in Hebrew, but the ancient Greek
translation known as the Septuagint
(abbreviated LXX) is also a very important witness to the text.
Peter Kirby (Early Jewish Writings).
Peter Kirby surveys scholars writing on the book of Micah:
Ralph L. Smith writes: "The superscription suggests the time of the ministry
of Micah as being during the reigns of Jotham (742-735 B.C.), Ahaz (735-715
B.C.) and Hezekiah (715-687 B.C.). These figures allow a maximum period of fifty-five
years for Micah's ministry, but it is not likely that he was active as a prophet
during all of that time. The references to Samaria (1:1, 6), to idols (1:7,
5:12-13. Eng. 5:13-14) and to Omri and Ahab (6:16) have led some to argue that
Micah's ministry began during the fall of Samaria in 722 B.C. Other scholars
have denied these references to Micah, arguing that they are the work of a later
redactor. Lescow even assigns the references to Samaria to the conflict which
brought about the Samaritan schism in the fourth century B.C. The evidence,
however, is not strong enough to deny that Micah preached before the fall of
Samaria. . . . Perhaps the earliest identifiable historical reference in the
book of Micah is in 1:10-16. This pericope probably describes the march of Sennacherib
from Lachish to Jerusalem in 701 B.C. If this section is the work of Micah we
have evidence that he prophesied at least to the end of the eighth century B.C.
Jer 26:18 tells us that Micah predicted the fall of Jerusalem (3:12) during
the reign of Hezekiah (715-687 B.C.)." (Micah-Malachi, pp. 4-5)
W. Eugene March writes: "The book of Micah seems to have grown in two
or perhaps three stages. The first stage involved the work done by the prophet
Micah remembered by a group of disciples and some of Judah's leaders (cf. Jer.
26:18-19). The second phase appears to have involved people concerned with preserving
collections of prophetic announcements, particularly those of Isaiah and Micah
(a close affinity exists between these two books). The first and second phase
of the book's development may overlap." (Harper's Bible Commentary,
Philip J. King writes: "It is unanimously agreed that the substance of
chs. 1-3 pertains to Micah. The tendency in the past has been to terminate his
contribution at just this point. Today, there is an inclination to attribute
at least parts of the remaining chapters to him, but certainly 7:8-20 is not
his work." (The Jerome Biblical Commentary, vol. 1, pp. 283-284)
J. Alberto Soggin writes of the first three chapters: "In 1.2-7 we have
a threat against the kingdom of Israel, later adapted to Judah by means of an
addition (v. 5b). We might therefore think of a text which was originally earlier
than 722-21, and was then adapted to a different situation since Israel no longer
existed. In 1.8-16 we have a lament on Judah, probably on the occasion of the
Assyrian invasion under Sennacherib in 701. Chapters 2-3, which give reasons
for the judgment, are more difficult to date: 2.1-5 are directed against avaricious
landowners; 2.6-11 against the prophet's enemies; 2.12f., however, speak of
the assembling of the scattered exiles of Israel and are therefore an exception
in this context, which is entirely one of judgment; 3.1-4 are against unjust
judges; 3.5-8 against false prophets. In 3.9-12 the priests and prophets are
the object of Micah's invective, and for the first time the threat of the destruction
of the Jerusalem temple is made. As we have seen, this last passage is doubtful:
Jer. 26.18 dates it in the time of Hezekiah. Anyone who accepts its authenticity
will note that the passage must have made a great impression if it could be
quoted a century later in a court as a reason for acquittal in such an important
case." (Introduction to the Old Testament, p. 271)
Jay G. Williams writes: "There has been considerable debate among scholars
about how much of the book is actually attributable to Micah himself. As usual,
the more radical scholars perform amputative surgery and remove most of the
passages of hope (that is, most of 4-7) as later additions. A few conservatives
attirbute every word to the original Micah. The truth, however, seems to lie
somewhere between the two extremes. Certainly there are several passages (for
instance, 4:10 which speaks of exile in Babylon) which were probably added later.
On the other hand, it hardly seems necessary to deny to Micah most of what is
found in the latter half of the book. One can only do so by asssuming before
hand that an eighth century prophet must have said this and not that.
The truth is that we know so little about the prophetic movement as a whole
that no such hypotheses can be very fully substantiated." (Understanding
the Old Testament, p. 248)