The Latin alphabet.

Ancient and medieval letters.


The Latin alphabet has 23 (or 24, with u) letters. Each letter has an uppercase and a lowercase form.

Letter. Pronunciation.
A a a as in father
B b b as in boy
C c c as in cat
ng as in ring
D d d as in dog
E e e as in get
F f f as in fish
G g g as in game
H h h as in hop
I i i as in magazine
K k k as in racket
L l l as in lamb
M m m as in mother
N n n as in nice
O o o as in note
P p p as in pig
Q q q as in queen
(always with u)
R r r as in river
S s s as in silly,
s as in miasma
T T t as in until
U u u as in tune*
V v v as in van
X x x as in fox
Y y y as in gym
Z z z as in zoo
 
* The letter u is a variation of the letter v, and the ancient Romans did not usually distinguish between them.

The letter j came about as a variant and consonantization of the letter i.

Latin vowels can often come together to make new sounds, called diphthongs.

Diphthong. Pronunciation.
ae ai as in aisle
au ow as in how
ei ei as in their
eu ew as in drew
oe oi as in oil
ου ou as in youth
ui we as in weak
   
same as ae
same as oe

Those last two are called ligatures, in which the vowels are written together as one letter.