The Jewish-Christian gospels.

The gospels of the Nazoraeans, of the Ebionites, and according to the Hebrews.


Attributed author(s).
Matthew.
Anonymous Nazoraean(s).
Anonymous Ebionite(s).

Text(s) available.
On site (present page also in Greek or Latin, English):

Gospel according to the Hebrews (Greek or Latin, English).
Gospel of the Nazoraeans (Greek or Latin, English).
Gospel of the Ebionites (Greek or Latin, English).
Judaic gospel (Greek and English).
Hebrew gospel of Matthew (Greek or Latin, English).
Skeptik (Greek only, Ebionite gospel only).
Early Christian Writings:
Gospel of the Hebrews (English only).
Gospel of the Nazoraeans (English only).
Gospel of the Ebionites (English only).

Useful links.
Gospels of the Hebrews, of the Nazoraeans, and of the Ebionites at Early Christian Writings.
Gospels, apocrypha, and Ebionites in the Catholic Encyclopedia.
Observations on Hebrew Matthew (Petersen).

Some of our many sources for primitive Christianity.

The canonical gospels of Mark, Luke, and John have attracted into their orbit very few ancient texts purporting to relate to them in any intimate fashion. For the gospel of Luke we have the gospel of Marcion, which was apparently an unauthorized recension of our canonical gospel. For that of John I can think of nothing more than the fact that chapter 21 is some kind of appendix to the gospel, which must have been intended to end at 20.31. Similarly, that of Mark appears to have attracted a separate ending that was not a part of the original text. The gospel of Matthew, on the other hand, is the center of a constellation of ancient texts which are, according to various church fathers, intimately linked in some way with our canonical gospel.

None of these texts, listed above, is extant. Some of these names may simply be different designations for the same text. We may be rather certain that at least two different texts are represented in this five-fold list, but it is impossible to be certain whether or not there are even more than two.

Most scholars would at least distinguish the Ebionite gospel from that of the Hebrews. Few if any scholars would accept that any of these gospels is actually the original Hebrew of our canonical gospel of Matthew.

The list of passages on this page is intentionally uncritical in its scope, laying out any passage that might in any way be claimed for any one of the above texts, with the exception of the original Hebrew gospel of Matthew, the evidence for which is laid out on my page about the origins of the four gospels.

None of the texts on this page ought to be confused with the so-called gospel of pseudo-Matthew (Latin; English), which was popular in the medieval period.

I have personally tracked down the core of the passages on this page in their original respective languages, mainly in the patristic editions of Migne, based on the list and translation by Montague Rhode James, The Apocryphal New Testament, pages 1-8, as posted at Early Christian Writings. For many of the passages, however, I am dependent upon Aurelio de Santos Otero, Los evangélios apócrifos, pages 29-53, M. J. Lagrange, L'évangele selon les Hébreux, Revue Biblique 1922, pages 165-181, Kurt Aland, Synopsis Quattuor Evangeliorum, appendix IV, pages 584-586, and A. F. J. Klijn, Jewish-Christian Gospel Tradition.

A. de Santos Otero and M. J. Lagrange number their passages differently. I coordinate their respective numeration systems on a table at the bottom of this page.

The Jewish gospels, as I have mentioned, have not survived the centuries. Only passing patristic references and occasional marginal glosses inform us of their existence, and of some of their contents.

In parentheses after the citation of each passage, I have noted the number assigned that passage by both de Santos and Lagrange. The italicized numerals for de Santos indicate that he has classified the passage in question separately, under the umbrella of the gospel of the Ebionites, on pages 47-53. Lagrange does not ennumerate the Ebionite gospel separately from that according to the Hebrews; his numerals, therefore, are never italicized.

Irenaeus.

Late century II.

From Irenaeus, Against Heresies 1.26.2 (de Santos 1; Lagrange 8):

[Ebionaei] solo autem eo quod est secundum Matthaeum evangelio utuntur, et apostolum Paulum recusant, apostatam eum legis dicentes.

[The Ebionites], however, use only that gospel which is according to Matthew, and renounce the apostle Paul, calling him an apostate from the law.

From Irenaeus, Against Heresies 3.11.7 (de Santos 2):

Ebionaei etenim, eo evangelio quod est secundum Matthaeum solo utentes, ex illo ipso convincuntur, non recte praesumentes de domino.

The Ebionites indeed, using only that gospel which is according to Matthew, are convicted by that alone, not presuming rightly about the Lord.

Clement of Alexandria.

Late century II, early III.

From Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies 2.9 (de Santos 3; Lagrange 9):

Η καν τω καθ Εβραιους ευαγγελιω, Ο θαυμασας βασιλευσει, γεγραπται, και ο βασιλευσας αναπαυθησεται.

Which also is written in the gospel according to the Hebrews: He who marveled shall reign, and he who reigned shall rest.

From Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies 5.14 (de Santos 4; Lagrange 10):

Ισον γαρ τουτοις εκεινα δυναται· Ου παυσεται ο ζητων, εως αν ευρη· ευρων δε, θαμβηθησεται· θαμβηθεις δε, βασιλευσει· βασιλευσας δε, επαναπαυσεται.

For those things can be the same as these: He who seeks shall not cease until he finds, and finding he shall marvel, and having marveled he shall reign, and having reigned he shall rest.

This repeated saying finds a parallel in the apocryphal oracle that Eusebius attributes to the cult of Simon Magus. From Eusebius, History of the Church 2.13.7, writing of his followers:

Τα δε τουτων αυτοις απορρητοτερα, ων φασι τον πρωτον επακουσαντα εκπλαγησεσθαι, και κατα τι παρ αυτοις λογιον εγγραφον θαμβωθησεσθαι, θαμβους ως αληθως και φρενων εκστασεως και μανιας εμπλεα τυγχανει....

And the most unspoken of these [rites] of theirs, of which they say that the one hearing them for the first time will be astonished, and according to a certain written oracle among them will be made to marvel, happen of a truth to be full of marvel and ecstatic thoughts and mania....

Similar sayings may be found in the gospel of Thomas and the traditions of Matthias.

Origen.

Early century III.

From Origen, On John 2.12, commentary on John 1.3 (de Santos 5; Lagrange 11):

Εαν δε προσιηται τις το καθ Εβραιους ευαγγελιον, ενθα αυτος ο σωτηρ φησιν· Αρτι ελαβε με η μητηρ μου, το αγιον πνευμα, εν μια των τριχων μου και απηνεγκε με εις το ορος το μεγα Θαβωρ, επαπορησει, πως μητηρ Χριστου το δια του λογου γεγενημενον πνευμα αγιον ειναι δυναται.

But if any should admit the gospel according to the Hebrews, where the savior himself says: Just now my mother, the holy spirit, took me by one of my hairs and carried me to Tabor, the great mountain, he will be confused as to how the holy spirit can be the mother of Christ, born through the word.

Origen goes on to explain that, since whoever does the will of God is the brother or sister or mother of the Lord (Matthew 12.50 = Mark 3.35 = Luke 8.21), it makes sense to call the holy spirit, who of course does the will of God, his mother. The next text from Origen is clearly of the same statement from the Hebrew gospel. Jerome cites this same statement from the Hebrew gospel.

From Origen, On Jeremiah, homily 15.4 (de Santos 6; Lagrange 12):

Ει δε τις παραδεχεται το, Αρτι ελαβε με η μητηρ μου, το αγιον πνευμα, και ανηνεγκε με εις το ορος το μεγα το Ταβωρ, και τα εξης....

And if any accepts the [statement]: Just now my mother, the holy spirit, took me by one of my hairs and carried me to Tabor, the great mountain, and what follows....

From Origen, Latin version of On Matthew 15.14 (de Santos 33; translation taken from Joachim Jeremias, Unknown Sayings of Jesus):

Scriptum est in evangelio quodam, quod dicitur secundum Hebraeos, si tamen placet suscipere illud, non ad auctoritatem sed ad manifestationem propositae quaestionis: Dixit, inquit, ad eum alter divitum: Magister, quid bonum faciens vivam? dixit ei: Homo, leges et prophetas fac. respondit ad eum: Feci. dixit ei: Vade vende omnia quae possides et divide pauperibus, en veni, sequere me.

It is written in a certain gospel, which is called according to the Hebrews, if yet it pleases one to accept it, not as an authority, but as a manifestation of the proposed question: The second of the rich men said unto him: Master, what good thing can I do and live? He said unto him: O man, do that which is in the law and the prophets. He answered him: I have kept them. He said unto him: Go, sell all that you own and distribute it to the poor, and come, follow me.

Coepit autem dives scalpere caput suum et non placuit ei. et dixit ad eumdominus: Quomodo dicis: Legem feci et prophetas? quoniam scriptum est in lege: Diliges proximum tuum sicut te ipsum. et ecce, multi fratres tui filii Abrahae amicti sunt stercore, morientes prae fame, et domus tua plena est multis bonis, et non egreditur omnino aliquid ex ea ad eos.

But the rich man began to scratch his head, and it pleased him not. And the Lord said unto him: How can you say: I have kept the law and the prophets? For it is written in the law: You shall love your neighbor as yourself. And behold, many of your brethren, sons of Abraham, are clad in filth, dying of hunger, and your house is full of many good things, and nothing at all goes out of it unto them.

Et conversus dixit Simoni, discipulo suo sedenti apud se: Simon, fili Ioanne, facilius est camelum intrare per foramen acus quam divitem in regnum caelorum.

And he turned and said unto Simon his disciple, who was sitting by him: Simon, son of Jonah, it is easier for a camel to enter in by the eye of a needle than for a rich man to enter into the kingdom of heaven.

This text is also known under the appellation pseudo-Origen, as not all are convinced that it belongs to the Alexandrian father.

From Origen, Homily on Luke 1.1:

Ecclesia quator habet evangelia, haeresis plurima, e quibus quoddam scribitur secundum Aegyptios, aliud iuxta duodecim apostolos.* ausus fuit et Basilides scribere evangelium et suo illud nomine titulare.

* Note that the Greek version has only το επιγεγραμμενον των δωδεκα ευαγγελιον (the gospel entitled of the twelve), omitting the apostles.

The church has four gospels, heresy many, from among which a certain one is written according to the Egyptians, another according to the twelve apostles. Even Basilides dared to write a gospel and to entitle it by his own name.

Aurelio de Santos Otero, while not numbering this text with either the Hebrew or the Ebionite gospel extracts, comments on pages 47-49 on the possibility that the gospel according to the twelve is along the same lines as the gospel according to the apostles that Jerome mentions in Against the Pelagians 3.2. He himself thinks that these are two different works, as Origen regards the Hebrew gospel as orthodox but this gospel of the twelve as heterodox. But the titles of all of the Jewish gospels were evidently confused throughout the patristic period, so I do think it likely that this gospel according to the twelve belongs in the category of the Jewish gospels, and may well be the heterodox Ebionite gospel.

Update 08-28-2005: I realize now that it is not the identification of the gospel according to the twelve with the gospel according to the apostles that de Santos is arguing against; it is the identification of either of these with the gospel according to the Hebrews. I mistook his phrase mencionado evangelio on page 47 to refer to the gospel according to the apostles, when in fact he was referring to that of the Hebrews. In other words, I was agreeing with de Santos all along without realizing it. On page 32 he identifies the gospel according to the twelve apostles mentioned by Origen with the Ebionite gospel, an identification that I consider quite likely.

Clementine literature.

Early century III.

Not one of these three pseudo-Clementine quotations is secure as having come from the Ebionite gospel, and Aurelio de Santos Otero includes each with a question mark (?) as a signal of the doubt attached to them.

From the Pseudo-Clementines, Homilies 3.51 (de Santos 8):

Το δε ειπειν αυτον· Ουκ ηλθον καταλυσαι τον νομον, και φαινεσθαι αυτον καταλυοντα, σημαινοντος ην οτι α κατελυσεν ουκ ην του νομου.

And when he said: I did not come to abolish the law, and it appeared that he himself did abolish it, it was a sign that the things which he abolished were not of the law.

From the Pseudo-Clementines, Homilies 11.35 (de Santos 9):

Ου χαριν ο αποστειλας ημας εφη· Πολλοι ελευσονται προς με εν ενδυμασι προβατων, εσωθεν δε εισι λυκοι αρπαγες· απο των καρπων αυτων επιγνωσεσθε αυτους.

By which grace the one who sent us said: Many shall come to me in clothing of sheep, but within are ravenous wolves. From their fruits you shall know them.

From the Pseudo-Clementines, Recognitions 2.29 (de Santos 10):

E contrario vero eos qui in divitiis ac luxuria versabantur lugebat, qui nihil pauperibus largiebantur, arguens eos rationem reddituros quia proximos suos quos diligere sicut seipsos debuerant, ne in egestate quidem positos miserati sunt.

To the contrary, truly, he lamented those who were engaged in riches and luxuries, who handed out nothing to the poor, declaring that they would give back a reason as to those nearby them, to whom they owed it to love as themselves, nor indeed were miserable that they were placed in want.

Cyprian.

Middle of century III.

From Cyprian (or pseudo-Cyprian), On Rebaptism 100.17, writing about a book called the preaching of Paul (de Santos 34):

In quo libro, contra omnes scripturas, et de peccato proprio confitentem invenies Christum, qui solus omnino nihil deliquit et ad accipiendum Ioannis baptisma paene invitum a matre sua Maria esse compulsum, item cum baptizaretur ignem super aquam esse visum, quod in evangelio nullo est scriptum, et post tanta tempora Petrum et Paulum post conlationem evangelii in Hierusalem et mutuam cogitationem et altercationem et rerum agendarum dispositionem, postremo in urbe quasi tunc primum invicem sibi esse cognitos, et quaedam alia huiusmodi absurde ac turpiter conficta, quae omnia in illum librum invenies congesta.

In which book, against all the scriptures, you will find Christ even confessing his own sin, who alone failed in nothing at all, and that he was compelled by his own mother Mary almost unwillingly to accept the baptism of John, that likewise, when he was baptized, a fire was seen over the water, which is written in no gospel, and that after so much time Peter and Paul, after the bringing together of the gospel in Jerusalem and the mutual cogitation and the altercation and disposition of matters to be done, finally [were] in the city [of Rome], as if there first they recognized each other, and certain other things of this nature, absurdly and disgracefully concocted, which you will find all congested in that book.

This passage makes the list for its thematic similarity to Jerome, Against the Pelagians 3.2, though surely a different text is in view, since the passage from Jerome has Jesus denying any personal sin.

Eusebius.

Early century IV.

From Eusebius, History of the Church 3.25.5, writing of the disputed or illegitimate scriptures (de Santos 7; Lagrange 15):

Ηδη δ εν τουτοις τινες και το καθ Εβραιους ευαγγελιον κατελεξαν, ω μαλιστα Εβραιων οι τον Χριστον παραδεξαμενοι χαιρουσι.

And some indeed catalogue also the gospel according to the Hebrews among these, in which those of the Hebrews who have accepted Christ especially rejoice.

From Eusebius, History of the Church 3.27.4 (de Santos 8; Lagrange 16):

Ουτοι δε του μεν αποστολου πασας τας επιστολας αρνητεας ηγουντο ειναι δειν, αποστατην αποκαλουτες αυτον του νομου, ευαγγελιω δε μονω το καθ Εβραιους λεγομενω χρωμενοι, των λοιπων σμικρον εποιουντο λογον.

And these reckoned that all the epistles of the apostle ought to be denied, calling him an apostate from the law, and, using only the gospel called according to the Hebrews, they make little of the word of the rest.

From Eusebius, History of the Church 3.39.17 (de Santos 9; Lagrange 13):

Κεχρηται δ ο αυτος μαρτυριαις απο της Ιωαννου προτερας επιστολης και απο της Πετρου ομοιως, εκτεθειται δε και αλλην ιστοριαν περι γυναικος επι πολλαις αμαρτιαις διαβληθεισης επι του κυριου, ην το καθ Εβραιους ευαγγελιον περιεχει. και ταυτα δ ημιν αναγκαιως προς τοις εκτεθεισιν επιτετηρησθω.

And he himself used testimonies from the first epistle of John and similarly from that of Peter, and set out also another record about a woman who was charged for many sins before the Lord, which the gospel according to the Hebrews has. And let these things also be necessarily observed by us on top of the things that have been set out.

From Eusebius, History of the Church 4.22.8 (de Santos 10; Lagrange 14):

Εκ τε του καθ Εβραιους ευαγγελιου και του Συριακου, και ιδιως εκ της Εβραιδος διαλεκτου, τινα τιθησιν [Ηγησιππος], εμφαινων εξ Εβραιων εαυτον πεπιστευκεναι· και αλλα δε ως αν εξ Ιουδαικης αγραφου παραδοσεως μνημονευει· ου μονος δε ουτος, αλλα και Ειρηναιος και ο πας των αρχαιων χορος, παναρετον σοφιαν τας Σολομωνος παροιμιας εκαλουν.

[Hegesippus] sets out something from the gospel according to the Hebrews and from the Syriac, and likewise from the Hebrew dialect, making apparent that he himself had come to faith out of the Hebrews. And other things also he records, as if from the unwritten Jewish tradition. And not only this man, but also Irenaeus and all the chorus of the ancients, called the proverbs the all-virtuous wisdom of Solomon.

Eusebius, History of the Church 5.10.2-3:

Τοσαυτην δ ουν φασιν αυτον εκθυμοτατη διαθεσει προθυμιαν περι τον θειον λογον ενδειξασθαι ως και κηρυκα του κατα Χριστον ευαγγελιου τοις επ ανατολης εθνεσιν αναδειχθηναι, μεχρι και της Ινδων στειλαμενον γης. ησαν γαρ, ησαν εις ετι τοτε πλειους ευαγγελισται του λογου ενθεον ζηλον αποστολικου μιμηματος συνεισφερειν επ αυξησει και οικοδομη του θειου λογου προμηθουμενοι, ων εις γενομενος και ο Πανταινος, και εις Ινδους ελθειν λεγεται, ενθα λογος ευρειν αυτον προφθασαν την αυτου παρουσιαν το κατα Ματθαιον ευαγγελιον παρα τισιν αυτοθι τον Χριστον επεγνωκοσιν, οις Βαρθολομαιον των αποστολων ενα κηρυξαι αυτοις τε Εβραιων γραμμασι την του Ματθαιου καταλειψαι γραφην, ην και σωζεσθαι εις τον δηλουμενον χρονον.

And they say that [Pantaenus], by his persistent disposition, demonstrated such devotion concerning the divine word that he was appointed as a preacher1 of the gospel according to Christ to the nations2 in the east, and was sent even unto the land of the Indians. For indeed there were still yet many evangelists of the word who sought to use their divine zeal, imitating the apostles, for the increase and building up of the divine word, of whom one also was Pantaenus, and it is said that he went to the Indians, where word has it he found that the gospel according to Matthew had preceded him among some there who had known Christ, to whom Bartholomew, one of the apostles, had preached and left them the writing of Matthew in letters of the Hebrews, which was even saved unto the time mentioned.

1 Or herald.
2Or gentiles.

From Eusebius, Theophany 4.12 (de Santos 11; Lagrange 18):

Επει δε το εις ημας ηκον Εβραικοις χαρακτηρσιν Ευαγγελιον την απειλην ου κατα του αποκρυψαντος επηγεν, αλλα κατα του ασωτως εζηκοτος, τρεις γαρ δουλους περιειχε, τον μεν καταφαγοντα την υπαρξιν του δεσποτου μετα πορνων και αυλητριδων, τον δε πολλαπλασιασαντα την εργασιαν, τον δε κατακρυψαντα το ταλοντον, ειτα τε τον μεν αποδεχθηναι, τον δε μεμφθηναι μονον, τον δε συγκλεισθηναι δεσμωτηριω, εφιστημι, μηποτε κατα τον Ματθαιον μετα την συμπληρωσιν του λογου του κατα του μηδεν εργασαμενου, η εξης επιλεγομενη απειλη ου περι αυτου, αλλα περι του προτερου κατ επαναληψιν λελεκται, του εσθιοντος και πινοντος μετα των μεθυοντων.

But since the gospel written in Hebraic characters which has come to us levels the threat, not against the man who hid the talent, but against him who had lived unsafely (for it had three servants, the one eating up the belongings of his master with harlots and flute-girls, another multiplying it by the work of trade, and the other hiding the talent, then made the one to be accepted, another only blamed, and the other to be closed up in prison), I wonder whether in Matthew, after the end of the word against the one who did not work, the threat that follows was said, not about him, but about the first, by epanalepsis,* the one who ate and drank with the drunkards.

* Epanalepsis is the taking up of a former topic after a latter topic has intervened.

The following excerpt from Eusebius, Theophany 4.12, is not extant in Greek. Both the Syriac transliteration and the Latin translation are from Joachim Jeremias, Unknown Sayings of Jesus (de Santos 12-13; Lagrange 17):

Egbe li shappire; shappire hanon dihab li ab debashemayya.

Eligo mihi quae mihi placent; placent mihi quae mihi dat pater meus in caelis.

I choose for myself those who please me; they please me whom my father in heaven gives me.

Cyril of Jerusalem.

Middle of century IV.

From Cyril of Jerusalem (or Pseudo-Cyril), Discourse on Mary Theotokos 12a (de Santos 41). I have only briefly seen the original Coptic of this passage in Budge, Miscellaneous Coptic Texts, and offer it here in the Spanish given by Aurelio de Santos Otero, Los evangélios apócrifos, page 45. We pick up the text at the point at which Cyril has asked a monk from Maioma of Gaza about the false doctrine that he has been teaching, and the monk replies:

Está escrito en [el evangelio] según los Hebreos que, deseando Cristo venir a la tierra para efectuar la redención, el buen padre llamó a una fuerza celestial por nombre Miguel, recomendándole el cuidado de Cristo en esta empresa. Y vino la fuerza al mundo, y se llamaba María, y estuvo siete meses en su seno. Después le dió a luz, y creció en estatura y escogió los apóstoles..., fue crucificado y asumido por el padre.

It is written in [the gospel] according to the Hebrews that, when Christ desired to come to earth to effect redemption, the good father called forth the celestial power, Michael by name, commending the care of Christ to him in this enterprise. And the power came down to the world, and it was called Mary, and he was in her womb for seven months. Afterward she brought him to light, and he grew in stature and chose the apostles..., was crucified and assumed by the father.

Cirilo le dice: ¿En qué lugar de los cuatro evangelios se dice que la santa virgen María, madre de Dios, es una fuerza?

Cyril says to him: In which part of the four gospels is it said that the holy virgin Mary, mother of God, is a force?

El monje responde: En el evangelio de los Hebreos.

The monk responds: In the gospel of the Hebrews.

Entonces, dice Cirilo, ¿son cinco los evangelios? ¿Cuál es el quinto?

Then, says Cyril, are there five gospels? Which is the fifth?

El monje responde: Es el evangelio que fue escrito para los Hebreos.

The monk responds: It is the gospel that was written for the Hebrews.

At the ellipsis (...) above, the translation in The Complete Gospels has:

...who preached him everywhere. He fulfilled the appointed time that was decreed for him. The Jews grew envious of him and came to hate him. They changed the custom of their law, and they rose up against him, and laid a trap, and caught him. They turned him over to the governor, who gave him back to them to crucify.

Didymus (the blind).

Late century IV.

From his commentary on Psalm 34.1 (LXX 33.1):

Τον Ματτηαιον δοκει εν τω κατα Λουκαν Λευιν ονομαζειν, ουκ εστιν δε αυτος, αλλα ο κατασταθεις αντι του Ιουδα ο Μαθθιας και ο Λευις εις διωνυμοι εισιν. εν τω καθ Εβραιους ευαγγελιω τουτο φαινεται.

It seems that in the one according to Luke Matthew is named Levi, but it is not the same [person], but rather the Matthias who was installed instead of Judas and Levi are one [person] with a double name. This appears in the gospel according to the Hebrews.

Epiphanius.

Late century IV.

From Epiphanius, Panarion 29.9 (de Santos 14; Lagrange 19):

Εχουσι [οι Ναζωραιοι] δε το κατα Ματθαιον ευαγγελιον πληρεστατον Εβραιστι. παρ αυτοις γαρ σαφως τουτο, καθως εξ αρχης εγραφη Εβραικοις γραμμασιν, ετι σωζεται. ουκ οικα δε ει και τας γενεαλογιας τας απο του Αβρααμ αχρι Χριστου περιειλον.

And [the Nazoraeans] have the gospel according to Matthew very complete in Hebrew. For among them this is clearly still preserved, just as it was written from the beginning in Hebraic letters. But I do not know if it has taken away the genealogies from Abraham to Christ.

Note that this Nazoraean gospel Epiphanius calls very complete (πληρεστατον), with the possible exception of the genealogies. When it comes to the Ebionite gospel in 30.13, however, he calls it not all very complete (ουχ ολω πληρεστατω), which must indicate that the Nazoraean and the Ebionite gospels were two different texts, despite their both being called according to the Hebrews, and despite the fact that Jerome appears to confuse the two. A. de Santos Otero accordingly lists this present passage from chapter 29 with the gospel according to the Hebrews, but all passages from chapter 30 with the gospel of the Ebionites.

From Epiphanius, Panarion 30.3, writing of the Ebionites (de Santos 1; Lagrange 1):

Και δεχονται μεν και αυτοι το κατα Ματθαιον ευαγγελιον. τουτω γαρ και αυτοι, ως και οι κατα Κηρινθον και Μηρινθον, χρωνται μονω. καλουσι δε αυτο κατα Εβραιους, ως τα αληθη εστιν ειπειν οτι Ματθαιος μονος Εβραιστι και Εβραικοις γραμμασιν εν τη καινη διαθηκη εποιησατο την του ευαγγελιου εκθεσιν τε και κηρυγμα.

And they themselves also accept the gospel according to Matthew. For this they use alone, as also those from Cerinthus and Merinthus. But they call it according to the Hebrews, since it is true to say that Matthew alone in the New Testament made the layout and preaching of the gospel in Hebrew, and in Hebraic letters.

From Epiphanius, Panarion 30.13, writing of the Ebionites (de Santos 2-5; Lagrange 2-4):

Εν τω γουν παρ αυτοις ευαγγελιω κατα Ματθαιον ονομαζομενω, ουχ ολω δε πληρεστατω, αλλα νενοθευμενω και ηκρωτηριασμενω, Εβραικον δε τουτο καλουσιν, εμφερεται, οτι Εγενετο τις ανηρ ονοματι Ιησους, και αυτος ως ετων τριακοντα, ος εξελεξατο ημας. και ελθων εις Καφαρναουμ εισηλθεν εις την οικιαν Σιμωνος του επικληθεντος Πετρου, και ανοιξας το στομα αυτου ειπε· Παρερχομενος παρα την λιμνην Τιβεριαδος εξελεξαμην Ιωαννην και Ιακωβον υιους Ζεβεδαιου, και Σιμωνα, και Ανδρεαν, και Θαδδαιον, και Σιμωνα τον Ζηλωτην, και Ιουδαν τον Ισκαριωτην, και σε τον Ματθαιον καθεζομενον επι του τελωνιου εκαλεσα, και ηκολουθησας μοι. υμας ουν βουλομαι ειναι δεκαδυο αποστολους, εις μαρτυριον του Ισραηλ.

In the gospel among them named according to Matthew, but not all very complete, but illegitimized and adulterated, but they call it the Hebraic [gospel], it states: There was a certain man, Jesus by name, and he himself was about thirty years old, who elected us. And having come to Capernaum he went into the house of Simon, nicknamed Peter, and he opened his mouth and said: While passing by the lake of Tiberias I elected John and Jacob, the sons of Zebedee, and Simon, and Andrew, and Thaddeus, and Simon the Zealot, and Judas Iscariot, and you, Matthew, I called while you were sitting in the toll-booth, and you followed me. I wish, therefore, for you to be twelve apostles as a testimony of Israel.

Και εγενετο Ιωαννης βαπτιζων, και εξηλθον προς αυτον Φαρισαιοι και εβαπτισθησαν, και πασα Ιεροσολυμα. Και ειχεν ο Ιωαννης ενδυμα απο τριχων καμηλου, και ζωνην δερματινην περι την οσφυν αυτου· και το βρωμα αυτου, φησι, μελι αγριον, ου η γευσις ην του μαννα, ως εγκρις εν ελαιω· ινα δηθεν μεταστρεψωσι τον της αληθειας λογον εις ψευδος, και αντι ακριδων ποιησωσιν εγκριδας εν μελιτι.

And John was baptizing, and Pharisees went out to him and were baptized, and all Jerusalem. And John had clothing from the hairs of a camel, and a skin belt around his loin. And his food, it says, was wild honey whose taste was of manna, as cake in oil. So that clearly they exchange the word of truth for a falsehood, and instead of locusts they make it cakes in honey.

Η δε αρχη του παρ αυτοις ευαγγελιου εχει οτι Εγενετο εν ταις ημεραις Ηρωδου του βασιλεως της Ιουδαιας ηλθεν Ιωαννης βαπτιζων βαπτισμα μετανοιας εν τω Ιορδανη ποταμω, ος ελεγετο ειναι εκ γενους Ααρων του ιερεως, παις Ζαχαριου και Ελισαβετ, και εξηρχοντο προς αυτον παντες.

And the beginning of the gospel among them has: It happened in the days of Herod the king of Judea that John came baptizing a baptism of repentance in the Jordan river, who was said to be from the line of Aaron the priest, the son of Zacharias and Elizabeth, and all were going out to him.

Και μετα το ειπειν πολλα επιφερει οτι, Του λαου βαπτισθεντος, ηλθε και Ιησους και εβαπτισθη υπο του Ιωαννου. και ως ανηλθεν απο του υδατος ηνοιγησαν οι ουρανοι, και ειδε το πνευμα του θεου το αγιον εν ειδει περιστερας κατελθουσης και εισελθουσης εις αυτον. και φωνη εγενετο εκ του ουρανου, λεγουσα· Συ μου ει ο υιος ο αγαθητος· εν σοι ηυδοκησα· και παλιν· Εγω σημερον γεγεννηκα σε. Και ευθυς περιελαμψε τον τοπον φως μεγα, ο ιδων, φησιν, ο Ιωαννης λεγει αυτω· Συ τις ει, κυριε; Και παλιν φωνη εξ ουρανου προς αυτον· Ουτος εστιν ο υιος μου ο αγαπητος, εφ ον ηυδοκησα. και τοτε, φησιν, ο Ιωαννης προσπεσων αυτω ελεγε· Δεομαι σου, κυριε, συ με βαπτισον. ο δε εκωλυεν αυτω, λεγων· Αφες, οτι ουτως εστι πρεπον πληρωθηναι παντα.

And after it says many things it states: When the people were being baptized, Jesus came too and was baptized by John. And as he came up out of the water the heavens opened, and he saw the holy spirit of God in the image of a dove coming down and coming onto him. And there was a voice from heaven saying: You are my beloved son. With you I am pleased. And again: Today I have begotten you. And immediately a great light illuminated the place. When John saw this, it says, he said to him: Who are you, Lord? And again there was a voice from heaven to him: This is my beloved son, with whom I am pleased. And then, it says, John walked to him and said: I request you, Lord, you baptize me. But he prevented him, saying: Allow it, since thus is it proper to fulfill all things.

Compare and contrast this baptismal scene with that in the commentary on Isaiah 11.2 by Jerome, and also with the scene leading up to the baptism in Jerome, Against the Pelagians 3.2.

The great light (φως μεγα) illuminating the place would seem to parallel the fire in Justin Martyr, Dialogue with Trypho 88.3:

...κατελθοντος του Ιησου επι το υδωρ και πυρ ανηφθη εν τω Ιορδανη....

...when Jesus went down into the water even a fire was lit in the Jordan....

A similar detail also appears to have figured into the Diatessaron that Tatian composed, and is even a textual variant from the Latin tradition. Bruce Metzger, The Early Versions of the New Testament, pages 35-36, writing of the Diatessaron:

This phenomenon, mentioned by Tatian's teacher, Justin Martyr, and included, according to Epiphanius, in the Gospel according to the Hebrews, is referred to by Ephraem in his Commentary and is preserved in the Pepysian Harmony, as it is also in two Old Latin manuscripts at Matt. iii. 15, Vercellensis (MS. a: 'lumen ingens') and Sangermanensis (MS. g1: 'lumen magnum').

Epiphanius elsewhere makes an explicit connection between the Diatessaron and the Hebrew gospel.

From Epiphanius, Panarion 30.14, writing of the Ebionites:

Παλιν δε αρνουνται ειναι αυτον ανθρωπον, δηθεν απο του λογου ου ειρηκεν ο σωτηρ εν τω αναγγεληναι αυτω οτι, Ιδου, η μητηρ σου και οι αδελφοι σου εξω εστηκασιν, οτι, Τις μου εστι μητηρ και αδελφοι; και εκτεινας την χειρα επι τους μαθητας εφη· Ουτοι εισιν οι αδελφοι μου και η μητηρ και αδελφαι, οι ποιουντες τα θεληματα του πατρος μου.

But again they deny that he was a man, apparently from the word which the savior spoke when it was announced to him: Behold, your mother and your brothers are standing outside, that is: Who is my mother and brothers? And he stretched out his hand over the disciples and said: These who my brothers and mother and sisters, those who are doing the wishes of my father.

From Epiphanius, Panarion 30.16, writing of the Ebionites (de Santos 6; Lagrange 5):

Ου φασκουσι δε εκ θεου πατρος αυτον γεγεννησθαι, αλλα εκτισθαι, ως ενα των αρχαγγελων, μειζονα δε αυτων οντα, αυτον δε κυριευειν και αγγελων και παντων υπο του παντοκρατορος πεποιημενων, και ελθοντα και υφηγησαμενον, ως το παρ αυτοις κατα Εβραιους ευαγγελιον καλουμενον περιεχει, οτι Ηλθον καταλυσαι τας θυσιας, και εαν μη παυσησθε του θυειν, ου παυσεται αφ υμων η οργη.

And they say that he was not engendered from God the father, but created, as one of the archangels, but being greater than they are, and that he is Lord both of angels and of all things made by the creator of all, and that he came also to declare, as the gospel among them called according to the Hebrews has: I came to abolish the sacrifices, and, if you do not cease to sacrifice, the wrath will not cease from you.

From Epiphanius, Panarion 30.22, writings of the Ebionites (de Santos 7; Lagrange 6):

Αυτοι δε αφανισαντες αφ εαυτων την της αληθειας ακολουθιαν ηλλαξαν το ρητον, οπερ εστι πασι φανερον εκ των συνεζευγμενων λεξεων, και εποιησαν τους μαθητας μεν λεγοντας· Που θελεις ετοιμασωμεν σοι το πασχα φαγειν; και αυτον δηθεν λεγοντα· Μη επιθυμια επεθυμησα κρεας τουτο το πασχα φαγειν μεθ υμων;

And they themselves, having removed from themselves the following of the truth, changed the word, which is apparent to all from the words in context, and made the disciples to say: Where do you wish us to prepare the Passover for you to eat? And they made him to clearly say: It is not with desire that I have desired to eat meat, this Passover, with you, is it?

From Epiphanius, Panarion 46.1, writing about Tatian (Lagrange 7):

Λεγεται δε το δια τεσσαρων ευαγγελιον υπ αυτου γεγενησθαι, οπερ κατα Εβραιους τινεσ καλουσιν.

And it is said that the Diatessaron gospel, which some call according to the Hebrews, was made by him.

This connection between the Diatessaron and the gospel of the Hebrews is perhaps surprising, yet at least one ancient author appears to have regarded the Diatessaron as a harmony of five gospels, perhaps including the Hebrew gospel, instead of merely the canonical four. Victor of Capua wrote in the preface of the Diatessaron in codex Fuldensis, edited by Ernst Ranke in 1868, as cited in note 3 of page 28 of Bruce Metzger, The Early Versions of the New Testament:

Tatianus, vir eruditissimus et orator illius temporis clari, unum ex quattor compaginaverat evangelium, cui titulum diapente composuit.

Tatian, a most erudite man and orator of that renowned time, put together one gospel from four, to which he attached the title Diapente.

While the title Diatessaron means through four, the title Diapente of course means through five. Some scholars, therefore, are tempted to suppose that the fifth was the gospel according to the Hebrews. We have already noted that Ephraem mentioned the fire at the Jordan in his commentary on the Diatessaron.

On pages 28-29 Metzger lists Grotius, Mill, Baumstark, Peters, and Quispel as scholars who think that Tatian used the gospel according to the Hebrews as a fifth source for his gospel harmony. Metzger himself does not appear to agree.

Jerome.

Early century V.

From Jerome, commentary on Psalm 135 (de Santos 22):

In Hebraico evangelio secundum Matthaeum ita habet: Panem nostrum crastinum da nobis hodie, hoc est, panem quem daturus es in regno tuo da nobis hodie.

In the Hebraic gospel according to Matthew it has thus: Our bread for tomorrow give us this day, that is, the bread which you will give in your kingdom give us today.

Jerome cites this same phrase in his commentary on Matthew 6.11.

From Jerome, On Isaiah, preface to book 18 (de Santos 29):

Cum enim apostoli eum putarent spiritum, vel iuxta evangelium quod Hebraeorum lectitant Nazaraei incorporale daemonium, dixit eis: Quid turbati estis, et cogitationes ascendunt in corda vestra? videte manus meas et pedes, quia ipse ego sum. palpate et cernite, quia spiritus carnem et ossa non habet sicut me videtis habere. et cum hoc dixisset, ostendit eis manus et pedes.

Since indeed the apostles supposed him a spirit, or according to the gospel which the Nazaraeans read of the Hebrews an incorporeal daemon, he says to them: Why are you troubled, and cogitations ascend in your hearts? See my hands and feet, that it is I myself. Handle and discern, because a spirit does not have flesh and bones as you see that I have. And, when he had said this, he showed them his hands and feet.

The actual words of Jesus here are a direct quotation from Luke 24.38-40 in the Latin Vulgate, which of course Jerome himself translated from the Greek. The only words that belong to the gospel of the Nazoraeans would be incorporale daemonium, incorporeal daemon, the latter word being more or less a Latin synonym for spirit.

Jerome elsewhere notes that Ignatius uses this term daemonium incorporale (incorporeal daemon) from the Hebrew gospel.

From Jerome, On Isaiah 4, commentary on Isaiah 11.2 (de Santos 28):

Sed iuxta evangelium quod Hebrao sermone conscriptum legunt Nazaraei: Descendet super eum omnis fons spiritus sancti.... porro in evangelio cuius supra fecimus mentionem haec scripta reperimus: Factum est autem cum ascendisset dominus de aqua descendit fons omnis spiritus sancti, et requievit super eum, et dixit illi: Fili mi, in omnibus prophetis exspectabam te, ut venires et requiescerem in te. tu es enim requies mea. tu es filius meus primogenitus, qui regnas in sempiternum.

But according to the gospel which the Nazaraeans read, written up in Hebrew speech: The whole fount of the holy spirit shall descend over him.... Further on in the gospel of which we made mention above we find these things written: But it happened that, when the Lord ascended from the water, the whole fount of the holy spirit descended and rested over him, and said to him: My son, in all the prophets I was expecting you, that you should come, and I might rest in you. You indeed are my rest. You are my firstborn son, who reigns in eternity.

Compare and contrast this baptismal scene with that in Epiphanius, Panarion 30.13, and also with the scene leading up to the baptism in Jerome, Against the Pelagians 3.2. Refer also to Hugo of Saint Cher, On the Book of Isaiah.

In his commentary on Matthew 27.51 Jerome tells us that he often makes mention (saepe facimus mentionem) of this gospel. Confer the phrase fecimus mentionem above.

From Jerome, On Ezekiel 6, commentary on Ezekiel 18.7 (de Santos 30):

Et in evangelio quod iuxta Hebraeos Nazaraei legere consueverunt, inter maxima ponitur crimina qui fratris sui spiritum contristaverit.

And in the gospel which the Nazaraeans are accustomed to read, according to the Hebrews, it places among the maximal crimes one who has caused sorrow to the spirit of his brother.

From Jerome, On Micah 2, commentary on Micah 7.6 (de Santos 16):

Sed qui legerit canticum canticorum et sponsum animae dei sermonum intellexerit, credideritque evangelio quod secundum Hebraeos editum nuper transtulimus, in quo ex persona salvatoris dicitur: Modo tulit me mater mea, sanctus spiritus, in uno capillorum meorum, non dubitabit dicere sermonem dei ortum esse de spiritu, et animam, quae sponsa sermonis est, habere socrum sanctum spiritum, qui apud Hebraeos genere dicitur feminino rua (רוח).

But he who reads the Song of Songs and understands the spouse of the soul to be the speech of God, and believes the gospel which we recently translated, that published as according to the Hebrews, in which from the person of the savior it is said: Just now my mother, the holy spirit, bore me by one of my hairs, [such a reader] will not doubt to say that the speech of God springs from the spirit, and that the soul, which is the spouse of the speech, has the holy spirit as a mother-in-law, which among the Hebrews is said by the female gender, rua (רוח).

Origen twice cites this same saying from the Hebrew gospel.

Jerome himself twice refers to this same saying in other commentaries in an abbreviated form. From On Isaiah 11, commentary on Isaiah 40.9:

Sed et in evangelio quod iuxta Hebraeos scriptum Nazaraei lectitant, dominus loquitur: Modo me tulit mater mea, spiritus sanctus.

But also in the gospel which the Nazaraeans read, written according to the Hebrews, the Lord says: Just now my mother, the holy spirit, bore me [away].

From his commentary on Ezekiel 16.13:

In evangelio quoque Hebraeorum, quod lectitant Nazaraei, salvator inducitur loquens: Modo me arripuit mater mea, spiritus sanctus.

In the gospel of the Hebrews also, which the Nazaraeans read, the savior is introduced saying: Just now my mother, the holy spirit, snatched me [away].

From Jerome, On Matthew 1, commentary on Matthew 2.5 (de Santos 20):

In Bethleem Iudaeae: Librariorum hic error est; putamus enim ab evangelista primum editum sicut in ipso Hebraico legimus, Iudae, non Iudaeae.

In Bethlehem of Judea: This is an error of the scribes; we suppose indeed that it was first published from the evangelist as we read in the Hebraic [gospel], of Judah, not of Judea.

A. F. J. Klijn, on page 124 of Jewish-Christian Gospel Tradition, lists two parallels to this text. First, Paschasius Radbertus (century IX) writes: Nam in Hebraeo sic habet: Et tu, Bethleem Efrata, parvus es in milibus Iuda (for in the Hebrew is has thus: And you, Bethlehem Ephratha, are small among the thousands of Judah). Second, Sedulius Scotus (century IX) writes: Librariorum error est; putamus enim ab evangelista primum editum sicut in ipso Ebraico legimus, Iudae, non Iudeae (it is an error of the scribes; we suppose indeed that it was first published from the evangelist as we read in the Hebraic, of Judah, not of Judea).

From Jerome, On Matthew 1, commentary on Matthew 6.11 (de Santos 21):

In evangelio quod appellatur secundum Hebraeos, pro supersubstantiali pane reperi mahar (מהר), quod dicitur crastinum, ut sit sensus: Panem nostrum crastinum, id est, futurum da nobis hodie.

In the gospel which is named according to the Hebrews, instead of supersubstantial bread I found mahar (מהר), which means of tomorrow, so that the sense would be: Our bread for tomorrow, that is, the future [bread] give us this day.

Jerome here refers to the same apocryphal phrase that he more fully cites in his commentary on Psalm 135.

From Jerome, On Matthew 2, commentary on Matthew 12.13 (de Santos 23):

In evangelio quo utuntur Nazaraeni et Ebionitae, quod nuper in Graecum de Hebraeo sermone transtulimus, et quod vocatur a plerisque Matthaei authenticum, homo iste qui aridam habet manum caementarius scribitur istius modi vocibus auxilium precans: Caementarius eram, manibus victum quaeritans. precor te, Iesu, ut mihi restituas sanitatem, ne turpiter mendicem cibos.

In the gospel which the Nazaraeans and Ebionites use, which we recently translated from Hebrew speech into Greek, and which is called by many the authentic [gospel] of Matthew, this man who has the dry hand is written to be a mason, praying for help with words of this kind: I was a mason, seeking a livelihood with my hands. I pray, Jesus, that you restore health to me, lest I disgracefully beg food.

A. F. J. Klijn, on pages 88-89 of Jewish-Christian Gospel Tradition, lists several parallels to this text, all of which are evidently dependent upon Jerome. First there is a passage from a commentary on Matthew by Rabanus Maurus (century IX):

Notandum quoque quod in evangelio secundum Hebraeos quo utuntur Nazaraeni et Ebionitae, et quod vocatur a plerisque Matthaei authenticum, homo iste qui aridam habet manum caementarius scribitur, istius modi vocibus auxilium precans: Caementarius eram, manibus victum quaeritans. precor te, Iesu, ut mihi restituas sanitatem, ne turpiter mendicem cibos.

It is to be noted that in the gospel according to the Hebrews which the Nazaraeans and Ebionites use, and which is called by many the authentic [gospel] of Matthew, that man who has a dry hand is written to be a mason, praying for help with words of this kind: I was a mason, seeking a livelihood with my hands. I pray, Jesus, that you restore health to me, lest I disgracefully beg food.

There is also Paschasius Radbertus (century IX), who writes: Porro in evangelio quo utuntur Nazareni legitur quod hic cementarius fuerit (further on in the gospel which the Nazarenes use it is read that this man was a mason); and Zacharias Chrysopolitani (century XII), who writes: Aeger iste dicitur fuisse caementarius, quaeritans victum manibus (that sick man is said to have been a mason, seeking a livelihood with his hands).

For more about the translation that Jerome made of the Hebrew gospel see also On Famous Men 2 and On Famous Men 16.

It is worth pointing out that Jerome assumes that the Nazoraeans and the Ebionites are using the same gospel, while Epiphanius distinguishes between the two.

From Jerome, On Matthew 4, commentary on Matthew 23.35 (de Santos 24):

In evangelio quo utuntur Nazaraeni, pro filio Barachiae, filium Ioiadae reperimus scriptum.

In the gospel which the Nazaraeans use, instead of the son of Berechiah, we find the son of Jehoiada.

Confer Matthew 23.35; Zechariah 1.1; 2 Chronicles 24.20-22. The Hebrew gospel thus solves a longstanding difficulty (the confusion between Zechariah the classical prophet and the Zechariah who was stoned in the temple).

A. F. J. Klijn, on pages 90-91 of Jewish-Christian Gospel Tradition, lists two parallels to this text. First, Paschasius Radbertus (century IX) writes: Tamen beatissimus Hieronymus sicut in commentario eius legitur hunc Zachariam filium Ioiade sacerdotis fuisse affirmat (but the most blessed Jerome affirms, just as it is read in his commentary, that this Zechariah was the son of Jehoiada the priest). Second, Peter Comestor (century XII) has: Et est filii Barachiae, id est, benedicti domini; in evangelio Nazaraeorum legitur Ioiadae (and it is of the son of Berechiah, that is, blessed of the Lord; in the gospel of the Nazaraeans Jehoiada is read).

From Jerome, On Matthew 4, commentary on Matthew 27.16 (de Santos 25):

Iste [Barabbas] in evangelio quod scribitur iuxta Hebraeos filius magistri eorum interpretatur qui propter seditionem et homicidium fuerat condemnatus.

This man [Barabbas] is interpreted in the gospel which is written according to the Hebrews as the son of their master, who was condemned on account of sedition and homicide.

A. F. J. Klijn, on page 92 of Jewish-Christian Gospel Tradition, lists two parallels to this text. First, Paschasius Radbertus (century IX) writes: Barrabas autem filius magistri eorum interpretatur (Barabbas, however, is interpreted as son of their master). Second, Zacharias Chrysopolitani (century XII) has: ...quia Barrabas in evangelio Hebraico filius magistri eorum interpretatur (...because Barabbas is interpreted in the Hebraic gospel as son of their master).

From Jerome, On Matthew 4, commentary on Matthew 27.51 (de Santos 26):

In evangelio cuius saepe facimus mentionem superliminare templi infinitae magnitudinis fractum esse atque divisum legimus.

In the gospel of which we often make mention we read that a lintel of the temple of infinite magnitude was broken and divided.

See the epistle to Hedibia and the History of the Passion, folio 65 recto, for other instances of this same incident.

In his commentary on Isaiah 11.2 Jerome notes that he has already made mention (fecimus mentionem) of this gospel. Confer the phrase saepe facimus mentionem above.

From Jerome, On Ephesians 3, commentary on Ephesians 5.4 (de Santos 15):

Ut in Hebraico quoque evangelio legimus, dominus ad discipulos loquentem: Nunquam, inquit, laeti sitis, nisi cum fratrem vestrum videritis in charitate.

As we read also in the Hebraic gospel, the Lord, speaking to the disciples, says: Never be content except when you look upon your brother in charity.

From Jerome, On Famous Men 2 (de Santos 17):

Evangelium quoque quod appellatur secundum Hebraeos, et a me nuper in Graecum Latinumque sermonem translatum est, quo et Origenes saepe utitur, post resurrectionem salvatoris refert: Dominus autem cum dedisset sindonem servo sacerdotis, ivit ad Iacobum et apparuit ei. iuraverat enim Iacobus se non comesturum panem ab illa hora quia biberat calicem domini donec videret eum resurgentem a dormientibus.

Also the gospel which is named according to the Hebrews, and which was recently translated by me into Greek and Latin, which also Origen often used, refers after the resurrection of the savior: But the Lord, when he had given the shroud to the servant of the priest, went to James and appeared to him. James indeed had sworn that he would not eat bread from that hour when he had drunk the chalice of the Lord until he saw him risen from among those who sleep.

Rursusque post paululum: Afferte, ait dominus, mensam et panem. statimque additur: Tulit panem et benedixit, ac fregit, et dedit Iacobo iusto, et dixit ei: Frater mi, comede panem tuum, quia resurrexit filius hominis a dormientibus.

And again after a little bit: Bear forth, said the Lord, a table and bread. And immediately is added: He bore bread and blessed it, and broke it, and gave it to James the just, and said to him: My brother, eat your bread, because the son of man has resurrected from among those who sleep.

A resurrection appearance to James is, of course, assumed in 1 Corinthians 15.7.

Pseudo-Abdias, Apostolic Histories 6.1 (century VI), furnishes a parallel:

Quorum minor natu Iacobus Christo salvatore in primis semper dilectus tanto rursus desiderio in magistrum flagrabat ut crucifixo eo cibum capere noluerit, priusquam a mortuis resurgentem videret, quod meminerit sibi et fratribus a Christo agente in vivis fuisse praedictum. quare ei primum omnium ut et Mariae Magdalenae et Petro apparere voluit ut discipulum in fide confirmaret et ne diutinum ieiunium toleraret, favo mellis oblato ad comedendum insuper Iacobum invitavit.

Of those James the lesser by birth was always first beloved by Christ the savior and in turn burned with such desire for the master that after he was crucified he wished not to take food until he saw him rising from the dead, which he and his brothers remembered was predicted while he was active among the living. Therefore, he wished first of all to appear to him and to both Mary Magdalene and Peter to confirm the disciple in faith and not to allow him to suffer from fasting any longer, and he offered him a honeycomb and invited James to eat.

Gregory of Tours, Book of Ten Histories 1.22 (century VI), offers another parallel:

Fertur Iacobus apostolus, cum domino iam mortuum vidisset in cruce, detestasse atque iurasse numquam se comisurum panem nisi dominum cerneret resurgentem. tertia denum die rediens dominus, spoliato Tartaro cum triumpho, Iacobo se ostendens ait: Surge, Iacobe, comede, quia iam a mortuis resurrexi. hic est Iacobus iustus, quem fratrem domini nuncupant, pro eo quod Ioseph fuerit filius ex alia uxore progenitus.

It is said that James the apostle, when he had seen the Lord already dead on the cross, cursed and sword never to eat bread unless he should discern the Lord rising. When on the third day the Lord returned, having despoiled Tartarus with his triumph, he showed himself to James and said: Rise, James; eat, because I have already resurrected from the dead. This is James the just, whom they call the brother of the Lord, since he was the son of Joseph born from another wife.

Another parallel is to be found in a collection from the epistles of Paul by Sedulius Scotus, 1 Corinthians 15.7 (century X):

Deinde Iacobo, Alphaei filio, qui se testatus est a coena domini non cemesurum panem usquequo videret Christum resurgentem, sicut in evangelio secundum Hebraeos legimus.

Next, James the son of Alphaeus, who testified that he would not eat bread from the table of the Lord until he saw Christ rising, just as we read in the gospel according to the Hebrews.

Finally, we have yet another parallel in Jacobus a Voragine, Legenda Aurea 67 (century XIII):

In parasceue autem, mortuo domino, sicut dicit Iosephus et Hieronymus in libro de viris illustribus, Iacobus votum vovit se non comesurum donec videret dominum a mortuis surrexisse. in ipsa autem die resurrectionis, cum usque ad diem illam Iacobus non gustasset cibum, eidem dominus apparuit ac eis qui cum eo erant; dixit: Ponite mensam et panem. deinde panem accipiens benedixit et dedit Iacobo iusto, dicens: Surge, frater mi; comede, quia filius hominis a mortuis resurrexit.

On the preparation [Friday], however, when the Lord died, just as Josephus and Jerome say in a book of illustrious men, James took an oath not to eat until he saw the Lord rise from the dead. On that same day of the resurrection, however, since right up until that day James had not enjoyed food, the Lord appeared to him and to those who were with him; he said: Put up a table and bread. Next he accepted bread and blessed it and gave it to James the just, saying: Rise, my brother; eat, because the son of man has risen from the dead.

Confer the similar passage from the Irish reference Bible.

For more about the translation that Jerome made of the Hebrew gospel see his commentary on Matthew 12.13 and On Famous Men 16.

From Jerome, On Famous Men 3 (de Santos 18):

Matthaeus, qui et Levi, ex publicano apostolus, primus in Iudaea propter eos qui ex circumcisione crediderant evangelium Christi Hebraicis litteris composuit; quod quis postea in Graecum transtulerit non satis certum est. porro ipsum Hebraicum habetur usque hodie in Caesariensi bibliotheca quam Pamphilus martyr studiosissime confecit. mihi quoque a Nazaraeis, qui in Beroea urbe Syriae hoc volumine utuntur, describendi facultas fuit; in quo animadvertendum quo ubicumque evangelista, sive ex persona sua sive ex domini salvatoris, veteris scripturae testimoniis abutitur, non sequatur septuagint translatorum auctoritatem, sed Hebraicum. e quibus illa duo sunt: Ex Aegypto vocavi filium meum, et: Quoniam Nazaraeus vocabitur.

Matthew, who is also Levi, the ex-publican apostle, first composed in Hebraic letters the gospel of Christ in Judea on account of those who had believed from among the circumcision; who afterward translated it into Greek is not sufficiently certain. Furthermore, this Hebraic [text] is held even until today in the Caesarean library which Pamphilus the martyr studiously put together. There was an opportunity for me from the Nazaraeans to copy this volume, which is used in Beroea, a city of Syria. In which [gospel] it must be noted that, wherever the evangelist, whether from his own person or from the Lord and savior, makes use of testimonies of the old scriptures, he does not follow the authority of the seventy translators, but the Hebrew. From which things two are: From Egypt did I call my son, and: For he shall be called a Nazarene.

These two Matthean references are 2.15 and 2.23, respectively. Jerome elsewhere reaffirms that the first draft of the gospel of Matthew was written in Hebrew. From the Prologue of the Four Gospels:

Primus omnium Matthaeus est, publicanus cognomento Levi, qui evangelium in Iudaea Hebreo sermone edidit, ob eorum vel maxime causam qui in Iesum crediderunt ex Iudaeis, et nequaquam legis umbra succendente evangelii vertitatem servabat.

First of all is Matthew, a publican with the cognomen of Levi, who published a gospel in Judea in the Hebrew speech, especially on account of those who had believed in Jesus from among the Jews, and with the shadow of the law in no way succeeding he served the truth of the gospel.

That Matthew wrote in Hebrew (or possibly Aramaic) is the patristic testimony of all who ever touch upon the topic of the original language of the first gospel, probably from as far back as late century I. Eusebius, History of the Church 3.39.116, citing Papias, Exegesis of the Oracles of the Lord, probably citing the elder John:

Ταυτα μεν ουν ιστορηται τω Παπια περι του Μαρκου· περι δε του Ματθαιου ταυτ ειρηται· Ματθαιος μεν ουν Εβραιδι διαλεκτω τα λογια συνεταξατο, ηρμηνευσεν δ αυτα ως ην δυνατος εκαστος.

These things therefore are recorded by Papias about Mark. But about Matthew he says these: Matthew therefore in the Hebrew dialect ordered together the oracles, and each one interpreted them as he was able.

Irenaeus, late century II, Against Heresies 3.1.1, Greek from Eusebius, History of the Church 5.8.2:

Ο μεν δη Ματθαιος εν τοις Εβραιοις τη ιδια αυτων διαλεκτω και γραφην εξηνεγκεν ευαγγελιου του Πετρου και του Παυλου εν Ρωμη ευαγγελιζομενων και θεμελιουντων την εκκλησιαν.

Ita Mattheus in Hebraeis ipsorum lingua scripturam edidit evangelii cum Petrus et Paulus Romae evangelizarent et fundarent ecclesiam.

Indeed Matthew, among the Hebrews in their own dialect, also bore forth a writing of the gospel, Peter and Paul evangelizing in Rome and founding the church.

Origen, early century III, concurs. From the Commentary on Matthew, as cited in Eusebius, History of the Church 6.25.4:

Ως εν παραδοσει μαθων περι των τεσσαρων ευαγγελιων, α και μονα αναντιρρητα εστιν εν τη υπο τον ουρανον εκκλησια του θεου, οτι πρωτον μεν γεγραπται το κατα τον ποτε τελωνην, υστερον δε αποστολον Ιησου Χριστου Ματθαιον, εκδεδωκοτα αυτο τοις απο Ιουδαισμου πιστευσασιν, γραμμασιν Εβραικοις συντεταγμενον.

As learned in tradition concerning the four gospels, which even alone are not spoken against in the church of God under heaven, that the first written that according to the one who was once a publican, but later an apostle of Jesus Christ, Matthew, who published it for those from Judaism who had believed, ordered together in Hebraic letters.

From Jerome, On Famous Men 16, writing of Ignatius (de Santos 19):

...et proprie ad Polycarpum, commendans illi Antiochensem ecclesiam, in qua et de evangelio quod nupe a me translatum est super persona Christi ponit testimonium dicens: Ego vero et post resurrectionem in carne eum vidi, et credo quai sit. et, quando venit ad Petrum et ad eos qui cum Petro erant, dixit eis: Ecce, palpate me, et videte quia non sum daemonium incorporale. et statim tetigerunt eum et crediderunt.

...and properly to Polycarp, commending the Antiochene church to him, in which he put testimony also of the gospel which was recently translated by me about the person of Christ, saying: I also truly saw him in the flesh after the resurrection, and believe that he is. And, when he came to Peter and to those who were with Peter, he said to them: Behold, handle me and see that I am not an incorporeal daemon. And immediately they touched him and believed.

The words daemonium incorporale (incorporeal daemon) in this text belong, according to Jerome elsewhere, to the gospel according to the Hebrews. Jerome, in other words, claims to have recently translated the gospel from the Hebrew (into both Greek and Latin).

Jerome is evidently quoting Ignatius from memory, however. First of all, it is not in the Ignatian epistle to Polycarp but rather in that to the Smyrnaeans (of which Polycarp was bishop) that this text is found. Second, Jerome misquotes Ignatius somewhat. In 3.1 Ignatius says that he knows (οιδα) that Jesus was in the flesh even after his resurrection, while Jerome quotes him as saying that he saw (vidi) Jesus in the flesh after his resurrection, a very different concept indeed!

Nevertheless, Jerome is correct about the Ignatian wording of what Jesus tells his disciples in Smyrnaeans 3.2:

Λαβετε, ψηλαφησατε με και ιδετε οτι ουκ ειμι δαιμονιον ασωματον.

Take, feel me and see that I am not an incorporeal daemon.

If it is true that Ignatius was influenced by one of these Jewish gospels, then it stands to reason that at least one of them predated Ignatius in circa 110.

Confer the teaching of Peter, according to Origen, On First Things 1, preface 8:

Si vero quis velit nobis proferre ex illo libello qui Petri doctrina appellatur, ubi salvator videtur ad discipulos dicere: Non sum daemonium incorporeum, primo respondendum est ei quoniam liber ipse inter libros ecclesiasticos non habetur, et ostendendum quia neque Petri est ipsa scriptura neque alterius cuiusdam qui spiritu dei fuerit inspiratus.

If someone truly wishes to recite to us from that little book which is called the teaching of Peter, where the savior is seen to say to the disciples: I am not an incorporeal daemon, it must first be responded to that person that this book is not held among the ecclesiastical books, and [then] demonstrated that it was written neither by Peter nor by any other one who was inspired by the spirit of God.

Perhaps comparably, Theodoretus calls the gospel that the Nazoraeans use the gospel of Peter.

From Jerome, Against the Pelagians 3.2 (de Santos 31-32):

In evangelio iuxta Hebraeos, quod Chaldaico quidem Syroque sermone sed Hebraicis litteris scriptum est, quod utuntur usque hodie Nazareni, secundum apostolos, sive ut plerique autumant iuxta Matthaeum, quod et in Caesariensi habetur bibliotheca, narrat historia: Ecce, mater domini et fratres eius dicebant ei: Joannes baptista baptizat in remissionem peccatorum; eamus et baptizemur ab eo. dixit autem eis: Quid peccavi, ut vadam et baptizer ab eo? nisi forte hoc ipsum quod dixi ignorantia est.

In the gospel according to the Hebrews, which indeed is written in Chaldean and Syrian speech, but with Hebraic letters, which the Nazarenes use until this day, according to the apostles, or as most term it according to Matthew, which is also held in the Caesarean library, it narrates the story: Behold, the mother of the Lord and his brothers were saying to him: John the baptist is baptizing for the remission of sins. Let us also be baptized by him. But he said to them: How have I sinned, that I should go and be baptized by him? Unless perchance this that I have just said is ignorance.

This scene from the Hebrew gospel is supposed to either lead up to the baptism of Jesus or deny that it happened at all. Note the difference between Jerome in this passage and Cyprian, On Rebaptism 100.17, in which Jesus actually confesses his sins. Also see the baptismal scenes in Epiphanius, Panarion 30.13 and the commentary of Jerome on Isaiah 11.2. As to calling this gospel according to the apostles, confer Origen, Homily on Luke 1.1. Jerome continues:

Et in eodem volumine: Si peccaverit, inquit, frater tuus in verbo, et satis tibi fecerit, septies in die suscipe eum. dixit illi Simon discipulus eius: Septies in die? respondit dominus et dixit ei: Etiam ego dico tibi, usque septuagies septies. etenim in prophetis quoque, postquam uncti sunt spiritu sancto, inventus est sermo peccati.

And in the same volume he says: If your brother sins in word, and makes satisfaction to you, seven times a day receive him. Simon his disciple said to him: Seven times a day? The Lord responded and said to him: Still I say to you, until seventy times seven. For indeed in the prophets, even after they were anointed by the holy spirit, the speech of sin was found.

This same text is found in a marginal gloss at Matthew 18.22 in some manuscripts, as having come from the Judaic gospel. There is reason to believe, then, that this Judaic gospel is the same as that to which Jerome so often refers.

From the epistle of Jerome to Damasus, epistle 20:

Denique Matthaeus, qui evangelium Hebraeo sermone conscripsit, ita posuit: Osanna barrama, id est: Osanna in excelsis.

At last Matthew, who wrote the gospel in Hebrew speech, puts it thus: Hosanna barrama, that is: Hosanna in the highest.

A. F. J. Klijn, on page 120 of Jewish-Christian Gospel Tradition, offers a parallel to this text from Paschasius Radbertus (century IX), who writes: Secundum quod Matheus, qui hoc evangelium hebreo sermone scripsit, hoc verbum in fine proposuit, osanna rama, quod est secundo dicere, salus in excelsis (therefore Matthew, who wrote this gospel in Hebrew speech, put this word at the end, osanna rama, which is to say a second time, salvation in the highest).

From the epistle of Jerome to Hedibia, epistle 120 (de Santos 27):

In evangelio autem quod Hebraicis litteris scriptum est legimus, non velum templi scissum, sed superliminare templi mirae magnitudinis corruisse.

But in the gospel which is written with Hebraic letters we read, not that the veil of the temple was rent, but that the lintel of the temple, of marvelous magnitude, fell.

A. F. J. Klijn, on page 94 of Jewish-Christian Gospel Tradition, lists parallels to this text. First, Christian of Stavelot (century IX) writes: Refert Iosephus superliminare quod infinitum magnitudinis erat fractum esse atque divisum, etiam angelicas virtutes tunc in ipso tempore clamasse: Transeamus ex his sedibus (Josephus says that a lintel of infinite magnitude was broken and divided, and also that angelic forces then at that time exclaimed: Let us go out from these places). Second, Peter Comestor (century XII) has: Nam et in evangelio Nazareorum superliminare templi infinitae magnitudinis fractum esse legitur auditasque voces in aere: Transeamu{u}s ex his sedibus (for in the gospel of the Nazarenes it is read that a lintel of the temple of infinite magnitude was broken and voices were heard in the air: Let us go out from these places).

A reference to the voices heard in the temple is also found in the epistle of Jerome to Marcella (epistle 46):

Et postquam velum templi scissum est, et circumdata ab exercitu Jerusalem, et dominico cruore violata, tunc ab ea etiam angelorum praesidia et Christi gratiam recessisse; denique etiam Josephum, qui vernaculus scriptor est Iudaeorum, asserere illo tempore quo crucifixus est dominus ex adytis templi virtutum coelestium erupisse voces, dicentium: Transmigremus ex his sedibus.

And after the veil of the temple has been rent, and Jerusalem has been surrounded by an army, and it has been stained by the dominical blood, then its guardian angels and the grace of Christ have receded from it; finally, Josephus, who is himself a Jewish writer, asserts that at the time at which the Lord was crucified there erupted from the temple voices of heavenly powers, saying: Let us depart hence.

Refer to the commentary on Matthew 27.51, History of the Passion, folio 65 recto, and Hugo of Saint Cher, On the Book of Isaiah, for other instances of this same incident.

The timing of the Josephan reference is off by almost four decades.

Philip of Side.

Century V.

From Philip Sidetes, writing of the ancients (de Santos 38; Lagrange 24):

Το δε καθ Εβραιους ευαγγελιον και το λεγομενον Πετρου και Θωμα τελειως απεβαλλον, αιρετικων ταυτα συγγραμματα λεγοντες.

But they completely cast out the gospel according to the Hebrews and that called of Peter and of Thomas, saying that these were the writings of heretics.

Theodoretus.

Century V.

From Theodoretus, Compendium of Heretical Fables 2.1-2, writing of the Nazoraeans (de Santos 35-37; Lagrange 21-23):

Μονον δε το καθ Εβραιους ευαγγελιον δεχονται, τον δε αποστολον αποστατην καλουσι.

But they accept only the gospel according to the Hebrews, and the apostle they call apostate.

Ευαγγελιω δε τω κατα Ματθαιον κεχρηνται μονω.

But they use only the gospel according to Matthew.

Οι δε Ναζωραιοι Ιουδαιοι εισι, τον Χριστον τιμωντες ως ανθρωπον δικαιον, και τω καλουμενω κατα Πετρον ευαγγελιω κεχρημενοι.

But the Nazoraeans are Jews, honoring Christ as a just man, and using the gospel called according to Peter.

It is difficult to credit this last statement. No one else claims that the Nazoraeans used the gospel according to Peter, and in fact Theodoretus himself (in the first excerpt above) says that the Nazoraeans accepted only the gospel according to the Hebrews, or that of Matthew (in the second excerpt).

Irish reference Bible.

Circa 800.

From the Irish reference Bible:

De eo testatur euangelium eius secundum Ebreos et a me nuper in Graecum et Latinum translatum, quod et Ori{g}enes uti{tur} post resurrectionem domini refert: Dominus cum dedisset sindonem servo sacerdoti ibit ad Iacobum et apparuit ei. iuraverit enim Iacobus se non commessurum panem ab illa hora qua biberet calicem dominus donec videret eius resurrectionem a mortuis. inde dominus post benedixit panem et fregit et dedit Iacobo, dicens ei: Frater mi, comede panem tuum, quia surrexit filius hominis.

About this his gospel according to the Hebrews testifies, and it has been translated by me into Greek and Latin, which also Origen used when it says after the resurrection of the Lord: The Lord when he had given a shroud to the servant of the priest went to James and appeared to him. For James had sworn that he would not eat bread from that hour in which the Lord drank the cup until he saw his resurrection from the dead. Then after this the Lord blessed the bread and broke it and gave it to James, saying to him: My brother, eat your bread, because the son of man has arisen.

Confer Jerome, On Famous Men 2.

Sedulius Scotus.

Century IX.

The English translation of this text is provided by E. P. Sanders in appendix V of his landmark book, The Tendencies of the Synoptic Tradition, page 302. Sanders in turn credits Hennecke-Schneemelcher, New Testament Apocrypha, volume 1, page 151. From the Commentary on Matthew, some slight modifications made to the translation:

Ita nanque refert evangelium quod secundum Ebraos praetitulatur:

For thus the gospel which is entitled according to the Hebrews reports:

Intuitus Ioseph oculis vidit turbam viatorum comitantium venientium ad speluncam et dixit: Surgam et procedam foras inobviam eis. cum autem processisset, dixit ad Simonem Ioseph: Sic mihi videnture isti qui veniunt augures esse. ecce enim omni momento respiciunt in caelum et inter se disputant. sed et peregrini videntur esse, quoniam et habitus eorum differt ab habitu nostro. nam vestis eorum amplissima est, et color fuscus est eorum densius, et pilea habent in capitibus suis et molles mihi videntur vestes eorum et in pedibus eorum sunt saraballae. et ecce steterunt et intendunt in me, et ecce iterum coeperunt huc venientes ambulare.

When Joseph looked out with his eyes, he saw a crowd of pilgrims who were coming in company to the cave, and he said: I will arise and go out to meet them. And, when Joseph went out, he said to Simon: It seems to me as if those coming were soothsayers, for lo, every moment they look up to heaven and confer with one another. But they seem also to be strangers, for their appearance differs from ours; for their dress is very rich and their complexion quite dark; they have caps on their heads and their garments seem to me to be silky, and they have breeches on their legs. And lo, they have halted and are looking at me, and lo, they have again set themselves in motion and are coming here.

Quibus verbis liquide ostenditur non tres tantum viros sed turbam viatorum venisse ad dominum, quamvis iuxta quosdam eiusdem turbae praecipui magistri certis nominibus Melchus, Caspar, Phadizarda nuncupentur.

From these words it is clear that not merely three men but a crowd of pilgrims came to the Lord, even if according to some the foremost leaders of this crowd were named with the definite names Melchus, Caspar, and Phadizarda.

A. F. J. Klijn, on page 126 of Jewish-Christian Gospel Tradition, offers a parallel to this text from Maelbrigte (year 1138), who writes: Legitur in evangelio secundum Ebreos quod venit Ioseph foras ex diversorio ante quam intrarent domum et, admirans eos, dixit Semeon filium suum quod perigrini essent cognoscens ab habitu (it is read in the gospel according to the Hebrews that Joseph came outside from the inn before they entered the house and, admiring them, said [to] Simeon his son that they were pilgrims, knowing this from their attire).

Haimo of Auxerre.

Century IX.

From Haimo, commentary II, On Isaiah 53.12, writing of the words of Jesus on the cross: Father, forgive them (de Santos 40):

Sicut enim in evangelio Nazarenorum habetur, ad hanc vocem domini multa milia Iudaeorum adstantium circa crucem crediderunt.

As it has it in the gospel of the Nazarenes, at this voice of the Lord many thousands of Jews standing around the cross came to faith.

Compare this report to one from the epistle of Jerome to Hedibia, epistle 120...:

In tantum autem amavit Hierusalem dominus ut fleret eam et plangeret et pendens in cruce loqueretur: Pater, ignosce eis, quod enim faciunt nesciunt. itaque impetravit quod petierat, multaque statim de Iudaeis milia crediderunt, et usque ad quadragesimum secundum annum datum est tempus paenitentiae.

But by so much did the Lord love Jerusalem that he wept for it and beat his chest, and while hanging on the cross he said: Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do. And thus he obtained what he had requested, and many thousands from the Jews came to faith, and a time of penitence was given up until the forty-second year.

...and to the History of the Passion, folio 55 recto. Refer also to Hugo of Saint Cher, On the Book of Isaiah.

The Historical Investigation of the Gospel According to Luke.

Century IX.

From the Historical Investigation of the Gospel According to Luke, folio 56 recto, on Luke 10.13:

Bezaida, in qua sanavit paraliticum cata Iohannem. in his civitatibus multae virtutes facte sunt, quae evangelium secundum Hebraos quinquaginta ter virtutes in his factas enumerat.

Bethsaida, in which he healed the paralytic according to John. In these cities many miracles were done, which the gospel according to the Hebrews ennumerates as fifty-three three miracles done in them.

Nicephorus.

Century IX.

From the stichometry of the Chronology of Nicephorus (de Santos 39; Lagrange 20):

Ευαγγελιον κατα Εβραιους, στιχοι ͵βςʹ.

The gospel according to the Hebrews, 2200 lines.

Codex Vaticanus Reginae Latinus 49.

From the royal codex Vaticanus Latinus 49, century IX:

Item isti VIII dies pascae in quo resur{rexit} Christus filius dei significant VIII dies post remi{ssionem} pascae in quo iudicabitur totum semen Adae, ut nuntiatur in evangelio Ebreorum, et ideo putant sapientes diem iudicii in tempore pascae, eo quod in illo die resur{rexit} Christus ut in illo iterum resurgant sancti.

Likewise these eight days of Passover in which Christ the son of God resurrected signify eight days after the remission of Passover in which the entire seed of Adam will be judged, as is announced in the gospel of the Hebrews, and therefore wise men suppose that the day of judgment is at the time of the Passover, since on that day Christ resurrected so that on that same day the saints might rise up again.

Marginal glosses.

The marginal notes of certain ancient manuscripts of the canonical gospel of Matthew give the reading at that point of the narrative in what is called the Judaic (Ιουδαικον) gospel. Aurelio de Santos Otero writes in a note on page 46 of Los evangélios apócrifos:

Se encuentran aņadidas como variantes a algunos códices cursivos griegos de San Mateo.... Se suponen ser obra de un recensor perteneciente al patriarcado de Antioquía entre 370 y 500.

These are found added on as variants in certain cursive Greek codices of Saint Matthew.... It is supposed that they are the work of an editor connected to the patriarchate of Antioch between 370 and 500.

Marginal gloss at Matthew 4.5, miniscule 566 (de Santos 42):

Το Ιουδαικον ουκ εχει εις την αγιαν πολιν, αλλα εν Ιερουσαλημ.

The Judaic [gospel] does not have: ...into the holy city, but [rather]: ...in Jerusalem.

Marginal gloss at Matthew 5.22, miniscule 1424 (de Santos 46):

Το εικη εν τισιν αντιγραφοις ου κειται, ουδε εν τω Ιουδαικω.

The [word] vainly does not stand in certain copies, nor in the Judaic [gospel].

Marginal gloss at Matthew 7.5, miniscule 1424 (de Santos 47):

Το Ιουδαικον ενταυθα ουτως εχει· Εαν ητε εν τω κολπω μου, και το θελημα του πατρος μου του εν ουρανοις μη ποιητε, εκ του κολπου μου απορριψω υμας.

Here the Judaic [gospel] has thus: If you are in my bosom, and you do not do the will of my father in the heavens, I shall throw you away from my bosom.

Helmut Koester, on page 357 of Ancient Christian Gospels, cites this variant, but has τοις ουρανοις instead of ουρανοις and αρριψω instead of απορριψω. He cites Vielhauer, Jewish-Christian Gospels, in Hennecke-Schneemelcher-Wilson, NT Apocrypha, 1.136, 139-146, in note 2 on that same page. The term αρριψω in Koester appears to be a typo. I can find no such verb in my lexicon. As for the definite article before ουρανοις, I do not know for certain which version represents the exact wording of miniscule 1424, though I think my money would be on that in de Santos.

Update 08-11-2005: I now notice that Kurt Aland, Synopsis Quattuor Evangeliorum, page 93, number 68, agrees with de Santos on both readings.

Marginal gloss at Matthew 10.16, miniscule 1424 (de Santos 48):

Το Ιουδαικον· Υπερ οφεις.

The Judaic [gospel has]: Beyond serpents.

Marginal gloss at Matthew 11.12, miniscule 1424 (de Santos 49):

Το Ιουδαικον· Διαρπαζεται, εχει.

The Judaic [gospel has]: Snatched as plunder.

Marginal gloss at Matthew 11.25, miniscule 1424 (de Santos 50):

Το Ιουδαικον· Ευχαριστω σοι.

The Judaic [gospel has]: I give you thanks.

Marginal gloss at Matthew 12.40, miniscule 899 (de Santos 51):

Το Ιουδαικον ουκ εχει· Τρεις η[μερας και τρεις νυκτας].

The Judaic [gospel] does not have: Three d[ays and three nights].

Marginal gloss at Matthew 15.5, miniscule 1424 (de Santos 52):

Το Ιουδαικον· Κορβαν ο υμεις ωφεληθησεσθε εξ ημων.

The Judaic [gospel has]: The corban which you will be owed from us.

Marginal gloss at Matthew 16.2, miniscule 1424 (de Santos 53):

Τα σεσημειωμενα δια του αστερισκου εν ετεροις ουκ εμφερεται, ουτε εν τω Ιουδαικω.

The things marked with an asterisk are not stated in the others, nor in the Judaic [gospel].

Marginal gloss at Matthew 16.17, miniscules 566 and 1424 (de Santos 43):

[Βαριωνα]: Το Ιουδαικον· Υιε Ιωαννου.

[Instead of Barjona] the Judaic [gospel has]: Son of John.

Marginal gloss at Matthew 18.22, miniscules 566 and 899 (de Santos 44):

Το Ιουδαικον εξης εχει μετα το εβδομηκοντακις επτα· Και γαρ εν τοις προφηταις μετα το χρισθηναι αυτους εν πνευματι αγιω, ευρισκεται εν αυτοις λογος αμαρτιας.

The Judaic [gospel] has after the seventy times seven: For even in the prophets, after their anointing in the holy spirit, the word of sin in them is found.

Jerome is aware of this same reading from the gospel according to the Hebrews in Against the Pelagians 3.2.

Marginal gloss at Matthew 26.74, miniscules 4, 273, 566, 899, and 1424 (de Santos 45):

Το Ιουδαικον· Και ηρνησατο και ωμοσεν και κατηρασατο.

The Judaic [gospel has]: And he denied and swore and cursed.

Marginal gloss at Matthew 27.65, miniscule 1424 (de Santos 54):

Το Ιουδαικον· Και παρεδωκεν αυτοις ανδρας ενοπλους, ινα καθεζωνται κατ εναντιον του σπηλαιου και τηρωσιν αυτον ημερας και νυκτας.

The Judaic [gospel has]: And he delivered to them armed men, in order to be seated right before the cave and keep it day and night.

Hugo of Saint Cher.

Century XIII.

From Hugo of Saint Cher, On the Book of Isaiah:

A voce clamantis, id est, propter vocem multitudinis angelorum clamantium laudes deo vel clamantium: Transeamus ab his sedibus imminente eversione Romanorum, ut legitur in evangelio Nazaraeorum.

With a voice exclaiming, that is, on account of the voice of a multitude of angels exclaiming praises to God or exclaiming: Let us go out from these places, since the destruction by the Romans is imminent, as it is read in the gospel of the Nazaraeans.

Refer to the parallels to Jerome to Hedibia, epistle 120, for other instances of this incident.

From Hugo of Saint Cher, On the Book of Isaiah redux:

In evangelio Nazaraeorum, quod Hebraice scriptum est, ita habetur: Factum est cum ascendisset dominus de aqua descendit fons omnis spiritus et requievit super eum et dixit ei: Expectabam te, fili, in omnibus prophetis, ut venires et requiescerem in te. tu enim es requies mea. tu es filius meus primogenitus, qui regnas in sempiternum.

In the gospel of the Nazaraeans, which was written in Hebraic, it is held thus: But it happened that, when the Lord ascended from the water, the whole fount of the holy spirit descended and rested over him, and said to him: My son, in all the prophets I was expecting you, that you should come, and I might rest in you. You indeed are my rest. You are my firstborn son, who reigns in eternity.

Confer Jerome, On Isaiah 4, commentary on Isaiah 11.2.

From Hugo of Saint Cher, On the Book of Isaiah redux, writing of the words from the cross, father, forgive them:

Ad hanc vocem secundum evangelium Nazaraeorum multa milia Iudaeorum astantium circa crucem crediderunt.

At this voice according to the gospel of the Nazaraeans many thousands of the Jews standing around the cross came to faith.

Refer also to Haimo, commentary II, On Isaiah 53.12, and the History of the Passion, folio 55 recto.

From Hugo of Saint Cher, On the Gospel according to Matthew:

In evangelio Nazaraeorum legitur, ut dicit Chrys{ostemus}, quod Ioseph Mariam videre facie ad faciem non poterat, quoniam spiritus sanctus eam a conceptione penitus impleverat, ita quod non cognoscebat eam propter splendorem vultus eius.

In the gospel of the Nazaraeans it is read, as Chrysostom says, that Joseph could not look at Mary face to face, since the holy spirit had filled her deeply from the conception, so that he did not recognize her on account of the splendor of her face.

From Hugo of Saint Cher, On the Gospel according to Matthew redux:

Dicitur in evangelio Nazaraeorum quod duo qui fuerunt mortui ante circiter annos quadraginta, boni et sancti viri, venerant in templum post resurrectionem domini et non loquentes petentes Pergamenum.

It is said in the gospel of the Nazaraeans that two men who had died about forty years beforehand, good and holy men, came into the temple after the resurrection of the Lord and without speaking wanted to go to Pergamum.

A. F. J. Klijn notes on page 139 of Jewish-Christian Gospel Tradition:

In Descensus Christi ad Inferos, the second part of the Gospel of Nicodemus which in some manuscripts bears the title "Gospel of the Nazoraeans," it is said in c. XII (XXVIII): Et duos testes quos Iesus a mortuis resuscitavit vidimus, qui multa mirabilia quae fecit Iesus in mortuis annuntiaverunt nobis....*
It is not said here that they went to Pergamum.

* I would translate: And we saw two witnesses whom Jesus had resuscitated from the dead, who announced to us many marvels which Jesus had done amongst the dead.

From Hugo of Saint Cher, On the Gospel according to John:

Legitur autem in evangelio Nazaraeorum quod tunc fuit captus Ioseph et positus in carcerem; unde primo apparuit ei dominus post resurrectionem in carcere. Nicodemus vero fugit in villam Gamalielis.

It is read, however, in the gospel of the Nazaraeans that Joseph was then captured and put into prison; there the Lord appeared to him first after the resurrection in the prison. Nicodemus truly fled into the village of Gamaliel.

And in his commentary on Matthew we find the following parallel:

Dicitur in evangelio Nazaraeorum quod Iudaei istum Ioseph in carcere posuerunt, alligantes eum ad columnam, eo quod ita honorifice sepelisset eum, et quod prius post resurrectionem apparuit ei in carcere quae Mariae Magdalenae et liberavit eum de carcere.

It is said in the gospel of the Nazaraeans that the Jews put this Joseph into prison, binding him to a column, because he had interred him so honorably, and that after the resurrection he appeared to him in prison before Mary Magdalene and liberated him from prison.

From Hugo of Saint Cher, On the Epistles of Paul (1 Corinthians 15):

Similiter primo apparuit B. Mariae Magdalenae inter mulieres secundum ordinem apparitionum in evangelio, quod dico quia legitur in evangelio Nazaraeorum quod primo apparuit B. virgini.

Likewise he appeared first to Mary Magdalene amongst the women according to the order of appearances in the gospel, which I say because it is read in the gospel of the Nazaraeans that he appeared first to the virgin.

Petrus de Riga.

In a copy of the Bible known as the Aurora of Petrus de Riga, century XIII, one of the marginal notes says regarding the temple incident:

In libris evangeliorum quibus utuntur Nazareni legitur quod radii prodierunt ex oculis eius, quibus territi fugabantur.

In the books of the gospels that the Nazarenes use it is read that rays issued from his eyes, by which terrified they were put to flight.

Confer Jerome, commentary on Matthew 21.15:

Igneum enim quiddam atque sidereum radiabat ex oculis eius, et divinitatis maiestas lucebat in facie.

For a certain fiery and starry [light] radiated from his eyes, and the majesty of divinity shone in his face.

The History of the Passion of the Lord.

Century XIV.

Extant in a codex of the fourteenth century. Note that evangelium is sometimes spelled ewangelium, a peculiarity that I have in my usual way corrected below as e[v]angelium.

From the History of the Passion of the Lord, folio 25 verso, concerning the footwashing for the disciples:

Et sicut dicitur in evangelio Nazareorum, singulorum pedes osculatus fuit.

And, just as it is said in the gospel of the Nazaraeans, he had kissed the feet of each.

From the History of the Passion of the Lord, folio 32 recto, concerning the agony in Gethsemane:

Apparuit autem ei angelus de celo confortans eum. qualiter autem angelus Christum in agonia sue oracionis confortaverit dicitur in evangelio Nazareorum.

But there appeared to him an angel from heaven comforting him. But the angel comforted Christ in his agony of prayer, as it is said in the gospel of the Nazaraeans.

From the History of the Passion of the Lord, folio 35 recto, concerning Peter and John in the court of the high priest:

In evangelio Nazareorum ponitur causa unde Iohannes notus fuerit pontifici. quia cum fuerit filius pauperis piscatoris Zebedei, sepe portaverat pisces ad curias pontificum Anne et Cayphe. exivit autem Iohannes ad ancillam hostiariam et ab ea impetravit quod Petrus socius suus qui anti ianuam stetit plorans fuit intromissus.

In the gospel of the Nazaraeans the reason is given for John having been known to the priest. It was because when he was the son of the poor fisherman Zebedee he often ported fishes to the curias of the priests Annas and Caiaphas. And John went out to the usher-maid and from her procured [permission] that his associate Peter, who stood before the door weeping, should be brought in.

From the History of the Passion of the Lord, folio 44 recto, concerning the scourging of the Lord:

Legitur in e[v]angelio Nazareorum quod ludei appreciaverunt quattuor milites ad flagellandum dominum tam dure usque ad effusionem sanguinis de toto corpore. eosdem eciam milites appreciaverunt quod ipsum crucifix[ere]nt sicut dicitur Io{hannes} 19.

It is read in the gospel of the Nazaraeans that the gladiators appropriated four soldiers to scourge the Lord hard enough to [cause] an effusion of blood from his entire body. They appropriated those same soldiers still to crucify him just as it is said in Jo{hn} 19.

From the History of the Passion of the Lord, folio 55 recto, concerning the words of forgiveness from the cross:

Pater ignosce eis, non enim sciunt quid faciunt. et nota quod in e[v]angelio Nazareorum legitur quod ad virtuosam istam Christi oracionem VIII milia conversi sunt postea ad fidem. scilicet tria milia in die pentecostes.

Father, forgive them, for they do not know what they do. And note that in the gospel of the Nazaraeans it is read that at this virtuous prayer of Christ eight thousand were afterward converted to the faith. There were to be sure three thousand on the day of Pentecost.

See also Haimo, commentary II, On Isaiah 53.12, and Hugo of Saint Cher, On the Book of Isaiah.

From the History of the Passion of the Lord, folio 65 recto, concerning the signs at the death of the Lord:

Item in e[v]angelio Nazareorum legitur superliminare templi infinite magnitudinis in morte Christi scissum. idem dicit Iosephus et addit quod audite sunt voces horribiles in aere dicentes: Transeamus ab hiis sedibus.

Likewise in the gospel of the Nazaraeans it is read that a lintel of the temple of infinite magnitude was broken at the death of Christ. Josephus says the same thing and adds that horrible voices were heard in the air saying: Let us leave these regions.

Jerome in his commentary on Matthew 27.51 and also his epistle to Hedibia remarks upon the same feature of this gospel. Refer also to Hugo of Saint Cher, On the Book of Isaiah.

The book of Uí Máine.

From the book of Uí Máine in the Royal Irish Academy (refer to Klijn, page 141):

Inn-aidchi geini Críst cain seacht n-inganta dég domain
is áibind indister dùibh 'san [s]oiscéla nEabhroibh.

The night of the birth of Christ the fair there were seventeen miracles of the world.
Delightfully are they related to you in the gospel of the Hebrews.

This same poem from the Yellow Book of Lacan in Trinity College, Dublin (refer again to Klijn, page 141):

An n-aidchi geni Crist chain
Secht n-inganta déc demain
Is aibind innister daib
Isan t-soiscel iar n-Ebraib.

Leabhar Breac.

From the Leabhar Breac (refer to Klijn, pages 145-146):

Ructha imorro focetoir o'n t-shlaníccid na hech-si for cúla di-a tigernaib, amal demnigter is-in soscela iar n-ébraidib.

Haec autem animalia a salvatore retro ducta sunt dominis suis, ut in evangelio secundum Ebraeos legitur.

These animals, however, were led back by the savior to their owners, as it is read in the gospel according to the Hebrews.


Table of references.

A. de Santos Otero and M. J. Lagrange.

The following table is designed to help coordinate the numeration systems of de Santos and Lagrange. Recall that I have italicized those numerals whose passages de Santos classifies with the gospel of the Ebionites. The passages are, of course, listed in my own order.

 
Reference of passage.
A. de Santos
Otero.
M. J.
Lagrange.
     
Irenaeus, Against Heresies 1.26.2. 1 8
Irenaeus, Against Heresies 3.11.7. 2  
Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies 2.9. 3 9
Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies 5.14. 4 10
Origen, On John 2.12, commentary on John 1.3. 5 11
Origen, On Jeremiah, homily 15.4. 6 12
Origen, Latin version of On Matthew 15.14. 33  
Origen, Homily on Luke 1.1.    
Pseudo-Clementines, Homilies 3.51. 8  
Pseudo-Clementines, Homilies 11.35. 9  
Pseudo-Clementines, Recognitions 2.29. 10  
Cyprian, On Rebaptism 100.17. 34  
Eusebius, History of the Church 3.25.5. 7 15
Eusebius, History of the Church 3.27.4. 8 16
Eusebius, History of the Church 3.39.17. 9 13
Eusebius, History of the Church 4.22.8. 10 14
Eusebius, History of the Church 5.10.3.    
Eusebius, Theophany 4.2. 11 18
Eusebius, Theophany 4.12. 12-13 17
Cyril of Jerusalem, Discourse on Mary Theotokos 12a. 41  
Epiphanius, Panarion 29.9. 14 19
Epiphanius, Panarion 30.3. 1 1
Epiphanius, Panarion 30.13. 2-5 2-4
Epiphanius, Panarion 30.14.    
Epiphanius, Panarion 30.16. 6 5
Epiphanius, Panarion 30.22. 7 6
Epiphanius, Panarion 46.1.   7
Didymus, commentary on Psalm 34.1.    
Jerome, commentary on Psalm 135. 22  
Jerome, On Isaiah, preface to book 18. 29  
Jerome, On Isaiah 4, commentary on Isaiah 11.2. 28  
Jerome, On Ezekiel 6, commentary on Ezekiel 18.7. 30  
Jerome, On Micah 2, commentary on Micah 7.6.1 16  
Jerome, On Matthew 1, commentary on Matthew 2.5. 20  
Jerome, On Matthew 1, commentary on Matthew 6.11. 21  
Jerome, On Matthew 2, commentary on Matthew 12.13. 23  
Jerome, On Matthew 4, commentary on Matthew 23.35. 24  
Jerome, On Matthew 4, commentary on Matthew 27.16. 25  
Jerome, On Matthew 4, commentary on Matthew 27.51. 26  
Jerome, On Ephesians 3, commentary on Ephesians 5.4. 15  
Jerome, On Famous Men 2. 17  
Jerome, On Famous Men 3.2 18  
Jerome, On Famous Men 16. 19  
Jerome, Against the Pelagians 3.2. 31-32  
Jerome to Damasus, epistle 20.    
Jerome to Hedibia, epistle 120. 27  
Philip of Side. 38 24
Theodoretus, Compendium of Heretical Fables 2.1. 35-37 21-23
Irish reference Bible.    
Sedulius Scotus, Commentary on Matthew.    
Haimo, commentary II of On Isaiah 53. 40  
The Historical Investigation of Luke, folio 56 recto.    
Stichometry of the Chronology of Nicephorus. 39 20
Codex Vaticanus Reginae Latinus 49.    
Marginal gloss at Matthew 4.5. 42  
Marginal gloss at Matthew 5.22. 46  
Marginal gloss at Matthew 7.5. 47  
Marginal gloss at Matthew 10.16. 48  
Marginal gloss at Matthew 11.12. 49  
Marginal gloss at Matthew 11.25. 50  
Marginal gloss at Matthew 12.40. 51  
Marginal gloss at Matthew 15.5. 52  
Marginal gloss at Matthew 16.2. 53  
Marginal gloss at Matthew 16.17. 43  
Marginal gloss at Matthew 18.22. 44  
Marginal gloss at Matthew 26.74. 45  
Marginal gloss at Matthew 27.65. 54  
Hugo of Saint Cher, On Isaiah.    
Hugo of Saint Cher, On Isaiah redux.    
Hugo of Saint Cher, On Isaiah redux.    
Hugo of Saint Cher, On Matthew.    
Hugo of Saint Cher, On Matthew redux.    
Hugo of Saint Cher, On John.    
Hugo of Saint Cher, On the Epistles of Paul.    
Petrus de Riga, gloss in the Aurora.    
History of the Passion, folio 25 verso.    
History of the Passion, folio 32 recto.    
History of the Passion, folio 35 recto.    
History of the Passion, folio 44 recto.    
History of the Passion, folio 55 recto.    
History of the Passion, folio 65 recto.    
The book of Uí Máine.    
Leabhar Breac, pages 165, 421.    

1 Included with this quotation from Jerome, On Micah, are two related quotations, one from Jerome, On Isaiah 11, commentary on Isaiah 40.9, and the other from his commentary on Ezekiel 16.13.
2 Under Jerome, On Famous Men 3, are subsumed the patristic comments on the original language of Matthew.