The book of Haggai.
Counted among the prophets.
None on site.
CCEL: Haggai (Hebrew only).
Swete LXX (Greek only).
Gateway (English only).
HTML Bible: Haggai (Hebrew and English).
HTML Bible: Haggai
(Latin Vulgate only).
Zhubert (Greek and English).
Kata Pi BHS: Haggai (Hebrew and English).
Kata Pi LXX: Haggai (Greek and English).
Sacred Texts: Haggai (polyglot).
Haggai at the OT Gateway.
Haggai in the Jewish Encyclopedia.
EJW (Peter Kirby).
Haggai at Kata Pi (Oesterly and Robinson).
Haggai from the Plymouth Brethren.
Introduction to Haggai (David Malick).
Outline of Haggai (David Malick).
Life and Literature of the Early Period
The book of Haggai ranks among the
latter prophets in the Jewish scriptures.
The book was originally written in Hebrew, but the ancient Greek
translation known as the Septuagint
(abbreviated LXX) is also a very important witness to the text.
Peter Kirby (Early Jewish Writings).
Peter Kirby surveys scholars writing on the book of Haggai:
Peter R. Ackroyd writes: "The structure of the book shows lose links with
Zechariah 1-8: the dates (Hag. 1:1, [15a]; 1:15b-2:1; 2:10, , 20) are similar
to those in Zechariah. The chronological references (except those bracketed
in the foregoing list) provide a framework to the oracles and the two small
narratives in 1:12-14 and 2:11-14. In their style, these dates resemble elements
in the Priestly work and in Chronicles, which suggests that in their present
form they may be of later, editorial, origin. The links between the two prophetic
collections suggest that this part of the 'book of the twelve prophets' (see
Introduction to the Prophetic Books) was shaped by one particular group in the
postexilic period." (Harper's Bible Commentary, p. 745)
Carroll Stuhlmueller writes: "The first prophet of post-exilic Israel,
Haggai, was truly a 'minor Prophet,' with a meagerness of words and crabbed
style. His four oracles are dated very clearly between August-September and
November-December, 520, the second year of the reign of Darius I Hystaspis (521-486).
Darius had seized the throne amidst confusion, intrigue, and revolt. His predecessor,
Cambyses, had committed suicide when, returning from an Egyptian campaign, he
learned that an upstart named Gaumata had declared himself king. Darius, of
the royal family, fought for two years, not only to remove Gaumata but also
to suppress uprisings across the sprawling empire. The Jews may have been maltreated
by their Persian masters at this time of panic and fear. The prophecy echoes
this rumble of world events (2:6-7,21-22)." (The Jerome Biblical Commentary,
vol. 1, p. 387)
Jay G. Williams writes: "In many respects, Haggai is not a very attractive
prophet, for his message seems prosaic and highly limited. Gone are the vigorous
denunciations of the earlier prophets; gone are their idyllic hopes. When Haggai
does speak glowingly of the future he speaks words which obviously were not
fulfilled. Still, one must remember that Haggai spoke to a disheartened people
who scarcely needed another word of woe. Haggai's very concrete messages at
least gave the people something to hang on to as they sought desperately to
reestablish themselves in the land of their fathers." (Understanding
the Old Testament, p. 256)
Ralph L. Smith writes: "Haggai has been criticized by some for being concerned
almost entirely with the construction of a building. Amos and Isaiah had criticized
the perfunctory offering of sacrifices as unacceptable to Yahweh, and Micah
and Jeremiah had predicted the destruction of the temple. Now Haggai believes
that the temple must be restored before Yahweh's blessings can come in. Why?
Because Ezekiel had drawn the blueprint for the future kingdom of God. It would
be a nationalistic, political kingdom of all the tribes of Israel with a temple
at its center in Jerusalem. Haggai's understanding was colored by his times
and circumstances. He could not imagine the kingdom of Yahweh without a temple
and the twelve tribes of Israel. He knew that Yahweh was not pleased with the
present circumstances (1:8-9; 2:17). He believed that the temple must be rebuilt
so the glory of the Lord might return and dwell with his people. Any person
who longs for the presence of the Lord is a good man. It is granted that Haggai
did not preach repentance, although Haggai recognized that there had to be a
change in the people's attitude before they responded to Haggai's call. Haggai
could be accused of provincialism and materialism in his announcement that the
treasures of the nations would be brought into the temple. But Haggai was looking
for the eschaton in his day. He believed that Yahweh was sovereign over nature
and history and that he was going to do something on a grand scale. He was going
to shake the heavens and the earth and the rule of Yahweh would come in. That
rule would be centered in Jerusalem, and Zerubbabel would be Yahweh's signet
ring." (Micah-Malachi, p. 149)