The apocalypse of John.

Our only canonical apocalypse.


Attributed author(s).
John.

Text(s) available.
Revelation 1-4, 5-8, 9-12, 13-16, 17-22 (on site, Greek only).
Online Greek Bible (Greek only).
Bible Gateway (English only).
HTML Bible: Revelation 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22 (Greek and English).
HTML Bible: Revelation 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22 (Latin Vulgate only).
Zhubert (Greek and English).
Kata Pi: Revelation 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22 (Greek and English).
Sacred Texts: Revelation 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22 (polyglot).
Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 4499 (scanned images; this is the one that gives the number as the beast as 616; discussion available at another site).

Useful links.
Revelation at the NT Gateway.
Revelation at Early Christian Writings.
Revelation by Daniel Wallace.
Revelation in the Catholic Encyclopedia.
Revelation at Kata Pi (R. M. Grant).
ECW e-Catena: Revelation 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22.

The canonical apocalypse, or revelation, claims in its first sentence to have been both seen and written by John. It is debated whether the author of this text is the same as the author of the gospel or of the epistles of John.

Justin Martyr, Dialogue with Trypho 81.4:

Και επειδη και παρ ημιν ανηρ τις ω ονομα Ιωαννης, εις των αποστολων του Χριστου, εν αποκαλυψει γενομενη αυτω χιλια ετη ποιησειν εν Ιερουσαλημ τους τω ημετερω Χριστω πιστευσαντας προεφητευσε, και μετα ταυτα την καθολικην και, συνελοντι φαναι, αιωνιαν ομοθυμαδον αμα παντων αναστασιν γενησεσθαι και κρισιν, οπερ και ο κυριος ημων ειπεν, οτι, Ουτε γαμησουσιν ουτε γαμηθησονται, αλλα ισαγγελοι εσονται, τεκνα του θεου της αναστασεως οντες.

And further, a certain man among us whose name was John, one of the apostles of Christ, also prophesied in a revelation that came to him that those who have put faith in our Christ will do a thousand years in Jerusalem, and after these things the general and, to speak collectively, eternal resurrection and judgment of all will come about all together at once, which our Lord also said: They shall neither marry nor be given in marriage, but shall be like the angels, being children of God, of the resurrection.

Irenaeus, Against Heresies 5.30.3 (first Greek portion from the Sacred Parallels of John the Damascene, second Greek portion from Eusebius, History of the Church 5.8.6):

Certius ergo et sine periculo est sustinere adimpletionem prophetiae quam suspicari et divinare nomina quaelibet, quando multa nomina inveniri possunt habentia praedictum numerum, et nihilominus quidem erit haec eadem quaestio. si enim multa sunt quae inveniuntur nomina, habentia numerum hunc, quod ex ipsis portabit qui veniet quaeritur?1 quoniam autem non propter inopiam nominum habentium numerum nominis eius dicimus haec, sed propter timorem erga deum et zelum veritatis. Ευανθας enim nomen habet numerum de quo quaeritur; sed nihil de eo affirmamus. sed et Λατεινος nomen habet sexcentorum sexaginta sex numerum, et valde verisimile est, quoniam novissimum regnum hoc habet vocabulum. Latini enim sunt qui nunc regnant, sed non in hoc nos gloriabimur. sed et Τειταν, prima syllaba per duas Graecas vocales, ε et ι, scripta, omnium nominum quae apud nos inveniuntur, magis fide dignum est. etenim praedictum numerum habet in se, et literarum est sex, singulis syllabis ex ternis literis constatibus, et vetus et semotum; neque enim eorum regum qui secundum nos sunt, aliquis vocatus est Titan, neque eorum quae publicare adorantur idolorum apud Graecos et barbaros habet vocabulum hoc; et divinum putatur apud multos esse hoc nomen, ut etiam sol Titan vocetur ab his qui nunc tenent; et ostentationem quandam continet ultionis, et vindictam inferentis, quod ille simulat se male tractatos vindicare. et alias autem et antiquum, et fide dignum, et regale, magis autem et tyrannicum nomen. cum igitur tantam suasionem habeat hoc nomen Titan, tantam habet verisimilitudinem, ut ex multis colligamus ne forte Titan vocetur, qui veniet,2 nos tamen non periclitabimur in eo, nec asseverantes pronuntiabimus hoc eum nomen habiturum, scientes quoniam si oporteret manifeste praesenti tempore praeconari nomen eius, per ipsum utique editum fuisset, qui et apocalypsim viderat. neque enim ante multum temporis visum est, sed pene sub nostro saeculo, ad finem Domitiani imperii.

1 The first Greek portion extends only this far.
2 The second Greek portion takes up at this point.

Ασφαλεστερον ουν και ακινδυνοτερον το περιμενειν την εκβασιν της προφητειας η το καταστοχαζεσθαι και καταμαντευεσθαι ονοματος· τυχον δε επι πολλων ονοματων ευρεθηναι δυναμενου του αυτου αριθμου· ει γαρ πολλα εστι τα ευρισκομενα ονοματα, εχοντα τον αυτον αριθμον, ποιον εξ αυτων φορεσει ο ερχομενος ζητηθησεται;

Ημεις ουν ουκ αποκινδινευομεν περι του ονοματος του αντιχριστου αποφαινομενοι βεβαιωτικως· ει γαρ εδει αναφανδον τω νυν καιρω κηρυττεσθαι τουνομα αυτου, δι εκεινου αν ερρεθη του και την απκαλυψιν εωρακοτος. ουδε γαρ προ πολλου χρονου εωραθη, αλλα σχεδον επι της ημετερας γενεας, προς τω τελει της Δομετιανου αρχης.

It is therefore more certain, and less hazardous, to await the fulfilment of the prophecy than to be making surmises and casting about for any names that may present themselves, inasmuch as many names can be found possessing the number mentioned, and the same question will, after all, remain unsolved. For, if there are many names found possessing this number, it will be asked which among them shall the coming man bear. It is not through a want of names containing the number of that name that I say this, but rather on account of the fear of God and zeal for the truth, for the name Euanthas contains the required number, but I make no allegation regarding it. Then also Latins has the number six hundred sixty-six; and it is very probable, this being the name of the last kingdom. For the Latins are they who at present bear rule; I will not, however, make any boast over this. Titan, too, the first syllable being written with the two Greek vowels e and i, among all the names which are found among us is rather worthy of credit. For it has in itself the predicted number, and it is composed of six letters, each syllable containing three letters; and it is ancient and removed from ordinary use; for among our kings we find none bearing this name Titan, nor have any of the idols which are worshipped in public among the Greeks and barbarians this appellation. Among many persons, too, this name is accounted divine, so that even the sun is termed Titan by those who do now possess [the rule]. This word, too, contains a certain outward appearance of vengeance, and of one inflicting merited punishment because he pretends that he vindicates the oppressed. And, besides this, it is an ancient name, one worthy of credit, of royal dignity, and still further, a name belonging to a tyrant. Inasmuch, then, as this name Titan has so much to recommend it, there is a strong degree of probability that from among the many [names suggested] we infer that perchance he who is to come shall be called Titan. We will not, however, incur the risk of pronouncing positively as to the name of antichrist, for if it were necessary that his name should be distinctly revealed in this present time it would have been announced by him who saw the apocalypse. For it was seen no very long time since, but almost in our generation, toward the end of the rule of Domitian.

Hippolytus, On the Antichrist 25-26 (Greek text from Daniel J. Theron, Evidence of Tradition, page 90):

Ταυτα μεν ουν προφητευει Ησαιας. ιδωμεν δε ει τα ομοια αυτω εφθεγξατο Ιωαννης. ουτος γαρ εν Πατμω τη νησω ων ορα αποκαλυψιν μυστηριων φρικτων, ατινα διηγουμενος αφθονως και ετερους διδασκει. λεγε μοι, ω μακαριε Ιωαννη, αποστολε και μαθητα του κυριου, τι ειδες και τι ηκουσας περι Βαβυλωνος; γρηγορησον και ειπε· και γαρ αυτη σε εξωρισεν· Και ηλθεν εις των επτα αγγελων των εχοντων τας επτα φιαλας....

Isaiah therefore prophesies these things. But let us see if John uttered things similar to him. For this man, while he was on the island of Patmos, sees a revelation of horrible mysteries, which he unenviously relates, and he teaches others. Tell me, O blessed John, apostle and disciple of the Lord, what did you see and what did you hear concerning Babylon? Awake and say it; for it also exiled you: And one of the seven angels came who had the seven vials....

Tertullian, Prescription 36.2-3:

Proxima est tibi Achaia; habes Corinthum; si non longe es a Macedonia, habes Philippos, habes Thessalonicenses; si potes in Asiam tendere, habes Ephesum; si autem Italiae adiaces, habes Romam, unde nobis quoque auctoritas praesto est.

Achaia is very close you; you have Corinth; if you are not far from Macedonia, you have Philippi, [and] you have Thessalonica; if you can cross to Asia, you have Ephesus. If, moreover, you are adjacent to Italy, you have Rome, whence there comes even into unto us the very authority.

Ista quam felix ecclesia cui totam doctrinam apostoli cum sanguine suo profuderunt, ubi Petrus passioni dominicae adaequatur, ubi Paulus Ioannis exitu coronatur, ubi apostolus Ioannes posteaquam in oleum igneum demersus nihil passus est, in insulam relegatur.

How happy is that church on which apostles poured forth all their doctrine along with their blood, where Peter endures a passion like that of his Lord, where Paul wins his crown in a death like that of John, where the apostle John was first plunged, unhurt, into boiling oil, and thence remitted to his island.

Dionysius of Alexandria, according to Eusebius, History of the Church 7.25.1-27 (translation slightly modified from that in the Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers):

Ειθ εξης υποβας, περι της αποκαλυψεως Ιωαννου ταυτα φησιν· Τινες μεν ουν των προ ημων ηθετησαν και ανεσκευασαν παντη το βιβλιον, καθ εκαστον κεφαλαιον διευθυνοντες αγνωστον τε και ασυλλογιστον αποφαινοντες ψευδεσθαι τε την επιγραφην.

Afterward he speaks in this manner of the apocalypse of John: Some before us have set aside and rejected the book altogether, criticizing it chapter by chapter and pronouncing it without sense or argument, and maintaining that the title is fraudulent.

Ιωαννου γαρ ουκ ειναι λεγουσιν, αλλ ουδ αποκαλυψιν ειναι την σφοδρα και παχει κεκαλυμμενην τω της αγνοιας παραπετασματι, και ουχ οπως των αποστολων τινα αλλ ουδ ολως των αγιων η των απο της εκκλησιας τουτου γεγονεναι ποιητην του γραμματος, Κηρινθον δε τον και την απ εκεινου κληθεισαν Κηρινθιανην συστησαμενον αιρεσιν, αξιοπιστον επιφημισαι θελησαντα τω εαυτου πλασματι ονομα.

For they say that it is neither the work of John nor a revelation, because it is covered thickly and densely by a veil of obscurity. And they affirm that none of the apostles and none of the saints, nor anyone in the church, is its author, but that Cerinthus, who founded the sect which was called after him the Cerinthian, desiring reputable authority for his fiction, prefixed the name.

Τουτο γαρ ειναι της διδασκαλιας αυτου το δογμα, επιγειον εσεσθαι την του Χριστου βασιλειαν, και ων αυτος ωρεγετο, φιλοσωματος ων και πανυ σαρκικος, εν τουτοις ονειροπολειν εσεσθαι, γαστρος και των υπο γαστερα πλησμοναις, τουτ εστι σιτιοις και ποτοις και γαμοις, και δι ων ευφημοτερον ταυτα ωηθη ποριεισθαι, εορταις και θυσιαις και ιερειων σφαγαις.

For the doctrine which he taught was this, that the kingdom of Christ will be an earthly one; and, as he was himself devoted to the pleasures of the body and altogether sensual in his nature, he dreamed that the kingdom would consist in those things which he desired, namely, in the delights of the belly and of sexual passion, that is, in eating and drinking and marrying and in festivals and sacrifices and the slaying of victims, under the guise of which he thought he could indulge his appetites with a better grace.

Εγω δε αθετησαι μεν ουκ αν τολμησαιμι το βιβλιον, πολλων αυτο δια σπουδης εχοντων αδελφων, μειζονα δε της εμαυτου φρονησεως την υποληψιν την περι αυτου λαμβανων, κεκρυμμενην ειναι τινα και θαυμασιωτεραν την καθ εκαστον εκδοχην υπολαμβανω, και γαρ ει μη συνιημι αλλ υπονοω γε νουν τινα βαθυτερον εγκεισθαι τοις ρημασιν.

But I could not venture to reject the book, as many brethren hold it in high esteem. But I suppose that it is beyond my comprehension, and that there is a certain concealed and more wonderful meaning in every part. For if I do not understand I suspect that a deeper sense lies beneath the words.

Ουκ ιδιω ταυτα μετρων και κρινων λογισμω, πιστει δε το πλεον νεμων υψηλοτερα η υπ εμου καταληφθηναι νενομικα, και ουκ αποδοκιμαζω ταυτα α μη συνεωρακα, θαυμαζω δε μαλλον οτι μη και ειδον.

I do not measure and judge them by my own reason, but leaving the more to faith I regard them as too high for me to grasp. And I do not reject what I cannot comprehend, but rather wonder because I do not understand it.

Επι τουτοις την ολην της αποκαλυψεως βασανισας γραφην αδυνατον τε αυτην κατα την προχειρον αποδειξας νοεισθαι διανοιαν, επιφερει λεγων· Συντελεσας δη πασαν ως ειπειν την προφητειαν, μακαριζει ο προφητης τους τε φυλασσοντας αυτην και δη και εαυτον. Μακαριος γαρ, φησιν, ο τηρων τους λογους της προφητειας του βιβλιου τουτου, καγω Ιωαννης ο βλεπων και ακουων ταυτα.

After this he examines the entire apocalypse, and, having proven that it is impossible to understand it according to the literal sense, he proceeds as follows: Having finished all the prophecy, so to speak, the prophet pronounces those blessed who shall observe it, and also himself. For he says: Blessed is he who keeps the words of the prophecy of this book, and I, John, who saw and heard these things.

Καλεισθαι μεν ουν αυτον Ιωαννην και ειναι την γραφην Ιωαννου ταυτην ουκ αντερω, αγιου μεν γαρ ειναι τινος και θεοπνευστου συναινω ου μην ραδιως αν συνθειμην τουτον ειναι τον αποστολον, τον υιον Ζεβεδαιου, τον αδελφον Ιακωβου, ου το ευαγγελιον το κατα Ιωαννην επιγεγραμμενον και η επιστολη η καθολικη.

Therefore that he was called John, and that this book is the work of one John, I do not deny. And I agree also that it is the work of a holy and inspired man. But I cannot readily admit that he was the apostle, the son of Zebedee, the brother of James, by whom the gospel of John and the catholic epistle were written.

Τεκμαιρομαι γαρ εκ τε του ηθους εκατερων και του των λογων ειδους και της του βιβλιου διεξαγωγης λεγομενης μη τον αυτον ειναι. ο μεν γαρ ευαγγελιστης ουδαμου το ονομα αυτου παρεγγραφει ουδε κηρυσσει εαυτον ουτε δια του ευαγγελιου ουτε δια της επιστολησ.

For I judge from the character of both, and from the forms of expression, and from the entire execution of the book, that it is not his. For the evangelist nowhere gives his name or proclaims himself either in the gospel or epistle.

Ειθ υποβας, παλιν ταυτα λεγει· Ιωαννης δε ουδαμου, ουδε ως περι εαυτου ουδε ως περι ετερου· ο δε την αποκαλυψιν γραψας ευθυς τε εν αρχη εαυτον προτασσει· Αποκαλυψις Ιησου Χριστου, ην εδωκεν αυτω δειξαι τοις δουλοις αυτου εν ταχει, και εσημανεν αποστειλας δια του αγγελου αυτου τω δουλω αυτου Ιωαννη, ος εμαρτυρησεν τον λογον του θεου και την μαρτυριαν αυτου οσα ειδεν.

Farther on he adds: But John never speaks as if referring to himself, or as if referring to another person. But the author of the apocalypse introduces himself at the very beginning: Revelation of Jesus Christ, which he gave him to show unto his servants quickly; and he sent and signified it by his angel unto his servant John, who bore witness of the word of God and of his testimony, even of all things that he saw.

Ειτα και επιστολην γραφει· Ιωαννης ταις επτα εκκλησιαις ταις εν τη Ασια, χαρις υμιν και ειρηνη. ο δε γε ευαγγελιστης ουδε της καθολικης επιστολης προεγραψεν εαυτου το ονομα, αλλα απεριττως απ αυτου του μυστηριου της θειας αποκαλυψεως ηρξατο· Ο ην απ αρχης, ο ακηκοαμεν, ο εωρακαμεν τοις οφθαλμοις ημων. επι ταυτη γαρ τη αποκαλυψει και ο κυριος τον Πετρον εμακαρισεν, ειπων· Μακαριος ει, Σιμων βαρ Ιωνα, οτι σαρξ και αιμα ουκ απεκαλυψεν σοι, αλλ ο πατηρ μου ο ουρανιος.

Then he even writes an epistle: John to the seven churches which are in Asia, grace be with you, and peace. But the evangelist did not prefix his name even to the catholic epistle; but without introduction he begins with the mystery of the divine revelation itself: That which was from the beginning, which we have heard, which we have seen with our eyes. For because of such a revelation the Lord also blessed Peter, saying: Blessed are you, Simon bar Jonah, for flesh and blood has not revealed it unto you, but rather my heavenly father.

Αλλ ουδε εν τη δευτερα φερομενη Ιωαννου και τριτη, καιτοι βραχειαις ουσαις επιστολαις, ο Ιωαννης ονομαστι προκειται, αλλα ανωνυμως ο πρεσβυτερος γεγραπται. ουτος δε γε ουδε αυταρκες ενομισεν, εις απαξ εαυτον ονομασας διηγεισθαι τα εξης, αλλα παλιν αναλαμβανει· Εγω Ιωαννης, ο αδελφος υμων και συγκοινωνος εν τη θλιψει και βασιλεια και εν υπομονη Ιησου, εγενομην εν τη νησω τη καλουμενη Πατμω δια τον λογον του θεου και την μαρτυριαν Ιησου. και δη και προς τω τελει ταυτα ειπεν· Μακαριος ο τηρων τους λογους της προφητειας του βιβλιου τουτου, καγω Ιωαννης ο βλεπων και ακουων ταυτα.

But neither in the reputed second or third epistle of John, though they are very short, does the name John appear; but there is written the anonymous phrase, the elder. But this author did not consider it sufficient to give his name once and to proceed with his work; but he takes it up again: I, John, who also am your brother and companion in tribulation, and in the kingdom and in the patience of Jesus Christ, was on the isle that is called Patmos for the word of God and the testimony of Jesus. And toward the closing he speaks thus: Blessed is he who keeps the words of the prophecy of this book, and I, John, who saw and heard these things.

Οτι μεν ουν Ιωαννης εστιν ο ταυτα γραφων, αυτω λεγοντι, πιστευτεον· ποιος δε ουτος αδηλον. ου γαρ ειπεν εαυτον ειναι, ως εν τω ευαγγελιω πολλαχου, τον ηγαπημενον υπο του κυριου μαθητην, ουδε τον αναπεσοντα επι το στηθος αυτου, ουδε τον αδελφον Ιακωβου, ουδε τον αυτοπτην και αυτηκοον του κυριου γενομενον.

But that he who wrote these things was called John must be believed, as he says it; but who he was does not appear. For he did not say, as often in the gospel, that he was the beloved disciple of the Lord, or the one who lay on his breast, or the brother of James, or the eyewitness and earwitness of the Lord.

Ειπεν γαρ αν τι τουτων των προδεδηλωμενων σαφως εαυτον εμφανισαι βουλομενος, αλλα τουτων μεν ουδεν, αδελφον δε ημων και συγκοινωνον ειπεν και μαρτυρα Ιησου και μακαριον επι τη θεα και ακοη των αποκαλυψεων.

For he would have spoken of these things if he had wished to show himself plainly; but he says none of them, but speaks of himself as our brother and companion, and a witness of Jesus, and blessed because he had seen and heard the revelations.

Πολλους δε ομωνυμους Ιωαννη τω αποστολω νομιζω γεγονεναι, οι δια την προς εκεινον αγαπην και τω θαυμαζεινκαι και ζηλουν αγαπηθηναι τε ομοιως αυτω βουλεσθαι υπο του κυριου, και την επωνυμιαν την αυτην ησπασαντο, ωσπερ και ο Παυλος πολυς και δη και ο Πετρος εν τοις των πιστων παισιν ονομαζεται.

But I am of the opinion that there were many with the same name as the apostle John, who, on account of their love for him, and because they admired and emulated him, and desired to be loved by the Lord as he was, took to themselves the same surname, as many of the children of the faithful are called Paul or Peter.

Εστιν μεν ουν και ετερος Ιωαννης εν ταις πραξεσι των αποστολων, ο επικληθεις Μαρκος, ον Βαρναβας και Παυλος εαυτοις συμπαρελαβον, περι ου και παλιν λεγει· Ειχον δε και Ιωαννην υπηρετην. ει δε ουτος ο γραψας εστιν, ουκ αν φαιην· ουδε γαρ αφιχθαι συν αυτοις εις την Ασιαν γεγραπται, αλλα· Αναχθεντες μεν, φησιν, απο της Παφου οι περι τον Παυλον ηλθον εις Περγην της Παμφυλιας, Ιωαννης δε αποχωρησας απ αυτων υπεστρεψεν εις Ιεροσολυμα.

For example, there is also another John, surnamed Mark, mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles, whom Barnabas and Paul took with them, of whom also it is said: And they had also John as their attendant. But that it is he who wrote this, I would not say. For it not written that he went with them into Asia, but rather: Now when Paul and his company set sail from Paphos, they came to Perga in Pamphylia, and John departing from them returned to Jerusalem.

Αλλον δε τινα οιμαι των εν Ασια γενομενων, επει και δυο φασιν εν Εφεσω γενεσθαι μνηματα και εκατερον Ιωαννου λεγεσθαι.

But I think that he was some other one of those in Asia; as they say that there are two tombs in Ephesus, each bearing the name of John.

Και απο των νοηματων δε και απο των ρηματων και της συνταξεως αυτων εικοτως ετερος ουτος παρ εκεινον υποληφθησεται.

And from the ideas and the words and their arrangement it may be reasonably conjectured that this one is different from that one.

Συναδουσι μεν γαρ αλληλοις το ευαγγελιον και η επιστολη, ομοιως τε αρχονται· το μεν φησιν· Εν αρχη ην ο λογος, η δε· Ο ην απ αρχης. το μεν φησιν· Και ο λογος σαρξ εγενετο και εσκηνωσεν εν ημιν και εθεασαμεθα την δοξαν αυτου, δοξαν ως μονογενους παρα πατρος, η δε τα αυτα σμικρω παρηλλαγμενα· Ο ακηκοαμεν, ο εωρακαμεν τοις οφθαλμοις ημων, ο εθεασαμεθα και αι χειρες ημων εψηλαφησαν περι του λογου της ζωης· και η ζωη εφανερωθη.

For the gospel and epistle agree with each other and begin in the same manner. The one says: In the beginning was the word, and the other: That which was from the beginning. The one says: And the word was made flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the father, and the other says the same things slightly altered: Which we have heard, which we have seen with our eyes, which we have looked upon and our hands have handled of the word of life; and the life was manifested.

Ταυτα γαρ προανακρουεται, διατεινομενος, ως εν τοις εξης εδηλωσεν, προς τους ουκ εν σαρκι φασκοντας εληλυθεναι τον κυριον· δι α και συνηψεν επιμελως· Και ο εωρακαμεν μαρτυρουμεν και απαγγελλομεν υμιν την ζωην την αιωνιον, ητις ην προς τον πατερα και εφανερωθη ημιν· ο εωρακαμεν και ακηκοαμεν απαγγελλο μεν και υμιν.

For he introduces these things at the beginning, maintaining them, as is evident from what follows, in opposition to those who said that the Lord had not come in the flesh. Wherefore also he carefully adds: And we have seen and bear witness, and declare unto you the eternal life which was with the father and was manifested unto us. That which we have seen and heard declare we unto you also.

Εχεται αυτου και των προθεσεων ουκ αφισταται, δια δε των αυτων κεφαλαιων και ονοματων παντα διεξερχεται· ων τινα με ν ημεις συντομως υπομνησομεν.

He holds to this and does not digress from his subject, but discusses everything under the same heads and names some of which we will briefly mention.

Ο δε προσεχως εντυγχανων ευρησει εν εκατερω πολλην την ζωην, πολυ το φως αποτροπην του σκοτους, συνεχη την αληθειαν, την χαριν, την χαραν, την σαρκα και το αιμα του κυριου, την κρισιν, την αφεσιν των αμαρτιων, την προς ημας αγαπην του θεου, την προς αλληλους ημας αγαπης εντολην, ως πασας δει φυλαττειν τας εντολας, ο ελεγχος του κοσμου, του διαβολου, του αντιχριστου, η επαγγελια του αγιου πνευματος, η υιοθεσια του θεου, η διολου πιστις ημων απαιτουμενη, ο πατηρ και ο υιος πανταχου· και ολως δια παντων χαρακτηριζοντας ενα και τον αυτον συνοραν του τε ευαγγελιου και της επιστολης χρωτα προκειται.

Anyone who examines carefully will find the phrases, the life, the light, turning from darkness, frequently occurring in both, and also continually [we find] truth, grace, joy, the flesh and blood of the Lord, the judgment, the forgiveness of sins, the love of God toward us, the commandment that we love one another, that we should keep all the commandments, the conviction of the world, of the devil, of antichrist, the promise of the holy spirit, the adoption of God, the faith continually required of us, the father and the son everywhere. In fact, it is plainly to be seen that one and the same character marks the gospel and the epistle throughout.

Αλλοιοτατη δε και ξενη παρα ταυτα η αποκαλυψις, μητε εφαπτομενη μητε γειτνιωσα τουτων μηδενι, σχεδον, ως ειπειν, μηδε συλλαβην προς αυτα κοινην εχουσα.

But the apocalypse is different from these writings and foreign to them, neither touching nor in the least bordering upon them, almost, so to speak, without even a syllable in common with them.

Αλλ ουδε μνημην τινα ουδε εννοιαν ουτε η επιστολη της αποκαλυψεως εχει, εα γαρ το ευαγγελιον, ουτε της επιστολης η αποκαλυψις, Παυλου δια των επιστολων υποφηναντος τι και περι των αποκαλυψεων αυτου, ας ουκ ενεγραψεν καθ αυτας.

But more, the epistle, for I pass by the gospel, does not mention nor does it contain any intimation of the apocalypse, nor does the apocalypse of the epistle; but Paul in his epistles gives some indication of his revelations, though he has not written them out by themselves.

Ετι δε και δια της φρασεως την διαφοραν εστιν τεκμηρασθαι του ευαγγελιου και της επιστολης προς την αποκαλυψιν.

Moreover, it can also be shown that the diction of the gospel and epistle differs from that of the apocalypse.

Τα μεν γαρ ου μονον απταιστως κατα την των Ελληνων φωνην, αλλα και λογιωτατα ταις λεξεσιν τοις συλλογισμοις ταις συνταξεσιν της ερμηνειας γεγραπται, πολλου γε δει βαρβαρον τινα φθογγον η σολοικισμον η ολως ιδιωτισμον εν αυτοις ευρεθηναι· εκατερον γαρ ειχεν, ως εοικεν, τον λογον, αμφοτερους αυτω χαρισαμενου του κυριου, τον τε της γνωσεως, τον τε της φρασεως.

For they were written, not only without error as regards the Greek language, but also with elegance in their expression, in their reasonings, and in their entire structure. They are far indeed from betraying any barbarism or solecism, or any vulgarism whatever. For the writer had, as it seems, both the requisites of discourse, that is, the gift of knowledge and the gift of expression, as the Lord had bestowed them both upon him.

Τουτω δε αποκαλυψεις μεν εωρακεναι και γνωσιν ειληφεναι και προφητειαν ουκ αντερω, διαλεκτον μεντοι και γλωσσαν ουκ ακριβως ελληνι ζουσαν αυτου βλεπω, αλλ ιδιωμασιν τε βαρβαρικοις χρωμενον και που και σολοικιζοντα· απερ ουκ αναγκαιον νυν εκλεγειν.

I do not deny that the other writer saw a revelation and received knowledge and prophecy. I perceive, however, that his dialect and language are not accurate Greek, but that he uses barbarous idioms, and in some places even solecisms.

Ουδε γαρ επισκωπτων, μη τις νομιση, ταυτα ειπον, αλλα μονον την ανομοιοτητα διευθυνων τουτων των γραφων.

It is unnecessary to point these out here, for I would not have any one think that I have said these things in a spirit of ridicule, for I have said what I have only with the purpose of showing clearly the difference between the writings.

Eusebius, History of the Church 3.20.10-11 (English translation slightly modified from that of the Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers):

Μετα δε τον Δομετιανον πεντεκαιδεκα ετεσιν κρατησαντα Νερουα την αρχην διαδεξαμενου, καθαιρεθηναι μεν τας Δομετιανου τιμας, επανελθειν δ επι τα οικεια μετα του και τας ουσιας απολαβειν τους αδικως εξεληλαμενους η Ρωμαιων συγκλητος βουλη ψηφιζεται ιστορουσιν οι γραφη τα κατα τους χρονους παραδοντες.

But after Domitian had reigned fifteen years and Nerva had succeeded to the empire, the Roman senate, according to the writers that record the history of those days, voted that the honors of Domitian should be cancelled, and that those who had been unjustly banished should return to their homes and have their property restored to them.

Τοτε δη ουν και τον αποστολον Ιωαννην απο της κατα την νησον φυγης την επι της Εφεσου διατριβην απειληφεναι ο των παρ ημιν αρχαιων παραδιδωσι λογος.

It was at this time that the apostle John returned from his banishment on the island* and took up his abode at Ephesus, according to an ancient tradition.

* Refer to Revelation 1.9.

Augustine, City of God 17.4.4 (Latin text from Villanova, Focus on Augustine):

Hic totum quod prophetabatur eluxit agnoscentibus numerum septenarium, quo est universae ecclesiae significata perfectio. propter quod et Iohannes apostolus ad septem scribit ecclesias, eo modo se ostendens ad unius plenitudinem scribere; et in proverbiis Salomonis hoc antea praefigurans sapientia aedificavit sibi domum et subfulsit columnas septem.

Here all that has been prophesied enlightened those who already knew about the number seven, by which the perfection of the universal church is signified. On which account also the apostle John writes to the seven churches, showing in that way that he writes to the fulness of the one; and in the proverbs of Solomon beforehand, by way of prefiguration, wisdom built her home and supported her seven columns.

I do not know Syriac, but in several Syriac manuscripts the prologue to the apocalypse of John reads:

The Revelation which was made by God to John the evangelist on the island of Patmos, to which he was banished by Nero the emperor.

A .gif image of the original Syriac is available.