The book of Amos.
Counted among the prophets.
None on site.
CCEL: Amos (Hebrew only).
Swete LXX (Greek only).
Gateway (English only).
HTML Bible: Amos (Hebrew and English).
HTML Bible: Amos
(Latin Vulgate only).
Zhubert (Greek and English).
Kata Pi BHS: Amos (Hebrew and English).
Kata Pi LXX: Amos (Greek and English).
Sacred Texts: Amos (polyglot).
Amos at the OT Gateway.
Amos in the Jewish Encyclopedia.
EJW (Peter Kirby).
Amos at Kata Pi (Oesterly and Robinson).
Amos from the Plymouth Brethren.
Introduction to Amos (David Malick).
Outline of Amos (David Malick).
Amos and Hosea (Gerald Larue).
The book of Amos ranks among the
latter prophets in the Jewish scriptures.
The book was originally written in Hebrew, but the ancient Greek
translation known as the Septuagint
(abbreviated LXX) is also a very important witness to the text.
Peter Kirby (Early Jewish Writings).
Peter Kirby surveys scholars writing on the book of Amos:
Philip J. King writes: "The writings of Amos imply a period of prosperity
and strong national consciousness, which, coupled with the information contained
in the superscription, leads us to assume that Amos' prophetic activity took
place shortly after the victory of Jeroboam II over the Arameans of Damascus,
late in his reign, probably before 750. This date fits the conditions reflected
in the book. Jeroboam II was a capable ruler and a strong military figure. Under
his leadership the northern kingdom reached the summit of power; the Assyrian
usurper Tiglath-pileser III and the ominous events associated with his reign
had not yet appeared. Judah also was enjoying prosperity, and the two states
of Israel and Judah were at peace with each other." (The Jerome Biblical
Commentary, vol. 1, p. 245)
Roy F. Melugin writes: "The book of Amos consists of three major sections:
an introductory superscription (1:1) and 'motto' (1:2); the main body of the
book (1:3-9:6); and a concluding postscript (9:7-15). The first and third sections
presuppose Jerusalem as the central focus of divine activity: Uzziah, king of
Judah, is listed ahead of Jeroboam, king of Israel (1:1). Yahweh roars from
Jerusalem, his dwelling place (1:2). At the end of the book, the concern for
the 'falling booth of David' (9:11) centers upon the Jerusalemite royal dynasty;
the reestablishment of the Jerusalemite political authority is the center of
attention." (Harper's Bible Commentary, p. 720)
Douglas Stuart writes: "Yahweh's concern for the plight of the poor and
the decadence of the rich pervades the book. The misuse and abuse of economically
weak people by those with economic power is condemned from the outsetin
connection with the slave sales following the border wars mentioned in 1:3-2:16
(esp. 1:6, 9) and quite forcefully in the initial portrayal of oppression within
Israel itself (2:6-8). Samaria was obviously a center of economic discrimination
(3:9, 10; 4:1), although such practices generally existed throughout the nation
as well (5:12; 8:4-6). While idle, rich living virtually depends on the exploitation
of others, this fact is not overtly mentioned at several points where high living
is condemned. As Jesus taught (Matt 6:24; cf. 1 Tim 6:10), the danger of materialism
is not only in its unfairness to others but in the godless self-centeredness
that corrupts an individual. It is that very godlessnesswithout mention
of oppression per sethat is depicted in some of the oracles against the
idle rich (3:15; 6:1-6; 6:8). Amos portrays Yahweh as offended both by exploitation
and by 'conspicuous consumption.'" (Hosea-Jonah, p. 291)
Samuel Sandmel writes: "Nine average-size chapters comprise this earliest
of the writings of the pre-exilic prophets. The whole book does not stem from
Amos. We must subtract from it, initially, eight verses (7:10-17) which relate
an incident about Amos, and were not composed by Amos. Next, there are five
'visions' which we shall consider and which explain how Amos came to speak out.
Finally, the original Book of Amos, being of a very early date, has been altered
and added to in the process of transmission. Many of the additions serve to
soften the book's prevailing tone of denunciation. Other additions were appended
to apply to the southern kingdom the message addressed originally to the northern
kingdom. Modern liberal scholars are agreed that such additions have been made,
and they are generally agreed in identifying certain passages as additions;
other passages remain the subject of controversy." (The Hebrew Scriptures,
Jay G. Williams writes: "Like most of the other books of prophecy, Amos
was compiled and edited by followers who remembered and eventually recorded
his words for posterity. Much of the poetry can be attributed to Amos himself,
but most scholars question the attribution of 9:11-15 to him. This passage,
which strikes about the only note of hope in the whole book, speaks of the rebuilding
of Israel and the days of peace and prosperity which will follow the disaster.
Apparently, though Amos saw only doom ahead, the editors felt compelled to add
this word of promise to mitigate somewhat the sense of awful terror which Amos
evokes and to express not only Yahweh's judgments but his unqualified promises
as well." (Understanding the Old Testament, p. 242)
J. Alberto Soggin writes: "Before reaching their present form, the prophecies
of Amos must have circulated orally, probably in fragmentary form. In ch. 2,
as we have seen, there is a passage with Deueteronomistic characteristics; in
9.11-15 we have the interesting oracle about the 'booth of David', an expression
unique in the Old Testament, which announces the restoration of the fallen house
of David. Until a few years ago the text was usually explained as a late addition,
but today there are many authors who argue for its authenticity. In that case
we would have a reference to the precarious situation of the house of David
after the split in the empire in the tenth century BC and an announcement of
its imminent reconstruction. In addition, we then clearly have a polemical position
which is taken up against the northern kingdom. Of course, if an oracle of this
kind were authentic, it would readily lend itself to amplification at a later
date, both at the time of Josiah, when he was effectively regaining from the
ruined Assyrian empire the territories which belonged to the kingdom of Israel,
and in the post-exilic period, when the passage could be interpreted in terms
of a messianic restoration." (Introduction to the Old Testament,